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Chapter 5 Stereochemistry: Chiral Molecules

Chapter 5 Stereochemistry: Chiral Molecules

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Chapter 5 Stereochemistry: Chiral Molecules

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  1. Chapter 5Stereochemistry: Chiral Molecules Chapter 5

  2. Isomerism: Constitutional Isomers and Stereoisomers • Stereoisomers are isomers with the same molecular formula and same connectivity of atoms but different arrangement of atoms in space Chapter 5

  3. Enantiomers: stereoisomers whose molecules are nonsuperposable mirror images • Diastereomers: stereoisomers whose molecules are not mirror images of each other • Example: cis and trans double bond isomers • Example: cis and trans cycloalkane isomers Chapter 5

  4. Enantiomers and Chiral Molecules • Chiral molecule • Not superposable on its mirror image • Can exist as a pair of enantiomers • Pair of enantiomers • A chiral molecule and its mirror image • Achiral molecule • Superposable on its mirror image Chapter 5

  5. Example: 2-butanol • I and II are mirror images of each other (figures a and b) • I and II are not superposable and so are enantiomers (figure c) • 2-butanol is a chiral molecule • Example: 2-propanol • Not chiral Chapter 5

  6. Chiral molecule • A molecule with a single tetrahedral carbon bonded to four different groups will always be chiral • A molecule with more than one tetrahedral carbon bonded to four different groups is not always chiral • Switching two groups at the tetrahedral center leads to the enantiomeric molecule in a molecule with one tetrahedral carbon • Stereogenic center • An atom bearing groups of such nature that an interchange of any two groups will produce a stereoisomer • Carbons at a tetrahedral stereogenic center are designated with an asterisk (*) • Example: 2-butanol Chapter 5

  7. The Biological Importance of Chirality • The binding specificity of a chiral receptor site for a chiral molecule is usually only favorable in one way Chapter 5

  8. Tests for Chirality: Planes of Symmetry • Plane of symmetry • An imaginary plane that bisects a molecule in such a way that the two halves of the molecule are mirror images of each other • A molecule with a plane of symmetry cannot be chiral • Example • 2-Chloropropane (a) has a plane of symmetry but 2-chlorobutane (b) does not Chapter 5

  9. Nomenclature of Enantiomers: The R,S System • Also called the Cahn-Ingold-Prelog system • The four groups attached to the stereogenic carbon are assigned priorities from highest (a) to lowest (d) • Priorities are assigned as follows • Atoms directly attached to the stereogenic center are compared • Atoms with higher atomic number are given higher priority • If priority cannot be assigned based on directly attached atoms, the next layer of atoms is examined • Example Chapter 5

  10. The molecule is rotated to put the lowest priority group back • If the groups descend in priority (a,b then c) in clockwise direction the enantiomer is R • If the groups descend in priority in counterclockwise direction the enantiomer is S Chapter 5

  11. Groups with double or triple bonds are assigned priorities as if their atoms were duplicated or triplicated Chapter 5

  12. Problem: Are A and B identical or enantiomers? • Manipulate B to see if it will become superposable with A • Exchange 2 groups to try to convert B into A • One exchange of groups leads to the enantiomer of B • Two exchanges of groups leads back to B Chapter 5

  13. Properties of Enantiomers: Optical Activity • Enantiomers have almost all identical physical properties (melting point, boiling point, density) • However enantiomers rotate the plane of plane-polarized light in equal but opposite directions • Plane polarized light • Oscillation of the electric field of ordinary light occurs in all possible planes perpendicular to the direction of propagation • If the light is passed through a polarizer only one plane emerges Chapter 5

  14. The Polarimeter Chapter 5

  15. Specific Rotation • An empty sample tube or one containing an achiral molecule will not rotate the plane-polarized light • An optically active substance (e.g. one pure enantiomer ) will rotate the plane-polarized light • The amount the analyzer needs to be turned to permit light through is called the observed rotation a • The standard value specific rotation [a] can be calculated • If the analyzer is rotated clockwise the rotation is (+) and the molecule is dextrorotatory • If the analyzer is rotated counterclockwise the rotation is (-) and the molecule is levorotatory Chapter 5

  16. The specific rotation of the two pure enantiomers of 2-butanol are equal but opposite • There is no straightforward correlation between the R,S designation of an enantiomer and the direction [(+) or (-)]in which it rotates plane polarized light • Racemic mixture • A 1:1 mixture of enantiomers • No net optical rotation • Often designated as (+) Chapter 5

  17. Racemic Forms and Enantiomeric Excess • Often a mixture of enantiomers will be enriched in one enantiomer • One can measure the enantiomeric excess (ee) • Example : The optical rotation of a sample of 2-butanol is +6.76o. What is the enantiomeric excess? Chapter 5

  18. The Synthesis of Chiral Molecules • Most chemical reactions which produce chiral molecules produce them in racemic form Chapter 5

  19. Molecules with More than One Stereogenic Center • The maximum number of stereoisomers available will not exceed 2n, where n is equal to the number of tetrahedral stereogenic centers Chapter 5

  20. There are two pairs of enantiomers (1, 2) and (3,4) • Enantiomers are not easily separable so 1 and 2 cannot be separated from each other • Diastereomers: stereoisomers which are not mirror images of each other • For instance 1 and 3 or 1 and 4 • Have different physical properties and can be separated Chapter 5

  21. Meso Compounds • Sometimes molecules with 2 or more stereogenic centers will have less than the maximum amount of stereoisomers Chapter 5

  22. Meso compound: achiral despite the presence of stereogenic centers • Not optically active • Superposable on its mirror image • Has a plane of symmetry Chapter 5

  23. Naming Compounds with More than One Stereogenic Center • The molecule is manipulated to allow assignment of each stereogenic center separately • This compound is (2R, 3R)-2,3-dibromobutane Chapter 5

  24. Fischer Projection Formulas • A 2-dimensional representation of chiral molecules • Vertical lines represent bonds that project behind the plane of the paper • Horizontal lines represent bonds that project out of the plane of the paper Chapter 5

  25. Stereoisomerism of Cyclic Compounds • 1,4-dimethylcyclohexane • Neither the cis not trans isomers is optically active • Each has a plane of symmetry Chapter 5

  26. 1,3-dimethylcyclohexane • The trans and cis compounds each have two stereogenic centers • The cis compound has a plane of symmetry and is meso • The trans compound exists as a pair of enantiomers Chapter 5

  27. Relating Configurations through Reactions in which No Bonds to the Stereogenic Carbon are Broken • A reaction which takes place in a way that no bonds to the stereogenic carbon are broken is said to proceed with retention of configuration Chapter 5

  28. Relative configuration: the relationship between comparable stereogenic centers in two different molecules • (R)-1-Bromo-2-butanol and (S)-2-butanol have the same relative configuration • Absolute configuration: the actual 3-dimensional orientation of the atoms in a chiral molecule • Can be determined by x-ray crystallography Chapter 5

  29. Chiral Molecules that Do Not Possess a Tetrahedral Atom with Four Different Groups • Atropoisomer: conformational isomers that are stable • Allenes: contain two consecutive double bonds Chapter 5