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Taiwan ROC & Hong Kong

Taiwan ROC & Hong Kong

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Taiwan ROC & Hong Kong

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  1. Taiwan ROC & Hong Kong Internal & External Politics

  2. Taiwan ROC Government • President (4-year term after 1996) • The Five ``Yuan”: • Executive Yuan (Premier, ministers, etc.) • Legislative Yuan (3-year term) • Judicial Yuan (15 grand justices) • Examination Yuan and Control Yuan • National Assembly (constitutional issues)

  3. Diplomatic Tug of War • 162 countries recognize PRC as the legitimate government of China • 8 (’49) 32 (’59) 49 (’69) 113 (’79) 129 (’89) • 27 countries recognize ROC as the legitimate government of China

  4. US Official Policy • US government shifted diplomatic recognition from ROC to PRC in 1979 • US congress passed Taiwan Relations Act in 1979 • American Institute in Taiwan • Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Offices in US

  5. Economic Ties • Trade and investment expanded rapidly despite restrictions by ROC government • Workaround: Hong Kong & Macau • ``Three links”: • mail • transportation • trade

  6. President Chen Shui-bian • pledged in 2000 that, unless the CCP used military force against Taiwan, he would: • not declare Taiwan independent • not change the name of Republic of China • not hold referendum on independence • … • 2002: “separate countries” “referendum”

  7. President Jiang Zemin: • ``One-China principle is the basis for cross-straits relations • ``Both the mainland and Taiwan belong to one China • ``On the premise of the one-China principle, all issues can be discussed” • Stress on cultural & economic exchanges

  8. PRC-UK Negotiations • Deng Xiaoping: “1 country, 2 systems” • PRC Constitution of 1982: S.A.R. • PRC & UK Joint Declaration in 1984

  9. Handover to PRC • 7th National People’s Congress adopted Basic Law of HKSAR in Beijing in 1990 • Became Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of PRC in July 1, 1997

  10. Basic Law of H K SAR • Stipulated in PRC-UK Joint Declaration in 1984 • Drafted by a committee with members from both Hong Kong and mainland • Adopted by 7th NPC in Beijing in 1990 • Came into effect on July 1, 1997 • Constitutional document for HKSAR

  11. 3 Principles in Basic Law • ``One Country, Two Systems” • Capitalist system and way of life shall remain unchanged for 50 years (B.L. A5) • ``High Degree of Autonomy” • ``Hong Kong People Running Hong Kong”

  12. 1 Country, 2 Systems • Legal system (British common law) shall be maintained, except for any law that contravene the Basic Law and subject to amendment by the legislature (B.L. A8)

  13. High Degree of Autonomy • HKSAR enjoys executive, legislative, and independent judicial power, including that of final adjudication (B.L. A2)

  14. ``HK People Running HK” • executive authorities and legislature shall be composed of permanent residents of Hong Kong (B.L. A3) • public servants must be permanent residents of Hong Kong (some exceptions)

  15. Central Government • responsible for defense and foreign affairs relating to HKSAR (B.L. A13-14) • authorizes HKSAR to conduct relevant external affairs on its own (B.L. A13) • HKSAR shall be responsible for the maintenance of public order • 11 PRC laws apply to HK (B.L. A18)

  16. Rights and Freedoms • freedom of speech, of the press, of publication, of association, of assembly, of procession, of demonstration, of communication, of movement, of conscience, of religious belief, of marriage.. • the right and freedom to form and join trade unions, and to strike

  17. Three Branches • Chief Executive • Tung Chee Hwa • Legislative Council • Court of Final Appeal

  18. S/election of C.E. & Legco • Shall be specified in the light of the actual situation in the HKSAR and in accordance with the principle of gradual and orderly progress (B.L. A45 & A68) • The ultimate aim is the election of the Chief Executive and all the members of the Legislative Council by universal suffrage (B.L. A45 & A68)

  19. S/election of Legco

  20. Chief Executive S/election • 800-member Election Committee • industrial, commercial, and financial sectors 1/4 • the professions 1/4 • labor, social services, religious, & other 1/4 • Legco, HK deputies to NPC, etc. 1/4 • Tung Chee Hwa (1997 - 2007) • no more than two consecutive terms

  21. Since 1997 • Freedoms and rights substantially intact • dissident groups • Falun Gong • Judicial system remains the same • Weak executive and strong civil service • Lack of political skills • Multiple political parties

  22. H.K.’s Competitiveness • Geographic location • one of the best deep-water ports in the world • hardworking and well-educated workforce • literacy rate 94%

  23. ``World’s Freest Economy” • exports & imports each ~US$200b > GDP • GDP per capita: US$23,027 • no VAT, sales tax, or capital gains tax • only 3 types of income are taxed: • profits, salaries, and property • 31% live in public housing

  24. Influence on Mainland • US$220 billion direct investment each way • Hong Kong bodies of law and expertise • Hong Kong attracts talents from mainland • Hong Kong radios, TV, newspapers, magazines, and Internet on mainland