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Fran ç ois PASSEBON & Jack WILLIS HST 2006 present …

Fran ç ois PASSEBON & Jack WILLIS HST 2006 present …. I pump, therefore I am. If you compress a gas in a pump, it becomes hotter, and if you release the pressure of this gas, it cools . Color is related to temperature . An animal, or a human body, for example, emits

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Fran ç ois PASSEBON & Jack WILLIS HST 2006 present …

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  1. François PASSEBON & Jack WILLIS HST 2006 present …

  2. I pump, therefore I am If you compress a gas in a pump, it becomes hotter, and if you release the pressure of this gas, it cools

  3. Color is related to temperature An animal, or a human body, for example, emits some infrared radiation that can be detected by an infrared camera

  4. I’m Gamov I’m Dicke Dicke and Gamov, two physicists, calculated independently in 1946 and 1948, that as the Universe has cooled, we should be able to detect microwave radiation throughout the sky …

  5. Long wave- -length Low temperature

  6. Max Planck, another physicist, had given the explanation of the shape of the radiation in 1900 The colder the body, the longer the wavelenght

  7. antenna Penzias Wilson But, in 1964, the radiation predicted by Gamov was finally detected, with this antenna … … by Penzias and Wilson, two physicists from the Bell labs, who got the Nobel prize in 1978

  8. We’ve a lot of work today ! In fact, the snow that one can see on an untuned TV is also due in part to that radiation emitted by the Universe as it was just 380,000 years old !

  9. Original temperature of the radiation : 3000 K Today, it is only 3 K The cooling says how far the light has travelled 13,7 billion years : the age of the Universe

  10. In 1992, the COBE satelite (Cosmic Background explorer) gave the first image of the radiation COBE was launched on November 18, 1989

  11. In 1992, the COBE satelite (Cosmic Background explorer) gave the first image of the radiation  Before correction of the Earthmovement around the Sun  Before correction of the microwaveradiation emitted by our own galaxy  The final image of the microwaveRadiation

  12. In 2003, the WMAP satelite gave a better resolution of the small fluctuations of temperature (WMAP = Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe) WMAP was launched on June 30, 2001

  13. Whereever it looked, WMAP measured the same data. So, the big-bang must have taken place at the same time everywhere

  14. But we can also observe small fluctuations of temperature, that may have lead to the formation of the galaxies

  15. Small fluctuations, compared to these at the surface of the Earth !

  16. To know more about the blackbody spectrum : Back to the begining

  17. Where does the matter of the universe come from? 1 proton for every 1,000,000,000 photons How did structures in the universe form? Ripples + Dark Matter

  18. E = mc2 Mass is just condensed energy E → m Albert Einstein, 1905

  19. Whatwas the origin of this early matter (and antimatter) in the Early Universe? Early Universe Size: a → 0 Age: t → 0 Temperature: T → very large T ~ 1/a, t ~ 1/T2 Energies: E ~ T

  20. Based on Einstein’s Relativity + Dirac’s Quantum Theory + Feynman’s description in Quantum Field Theory We conclude: Every particle has an antiparticle

  21. Why do we not see this in our evidence? Dirac predicted the existance of antimatter in 1928 He predicted antimatter would have the same mass but opposite internal properties of matter 1957: particles and antiparticles spinning in same direction behave differently 1964: CP violation shown in weak decays of K0 mesons indicating matter does not behave exactly as antimatter. Current evidence suggests: Because ofasymmetry, almost all particles and antiparticles were annihilated except for a small number of particles

  22. Density Budget of the Early Universe ● Total Density ~ critical Theory of inflation, measurement of microwave background:ΩTot = ~ 1 ● Baryon Density small Big-Bang nucleosynthesis, CMB: ΩBaryons ~ few %

  23. The Density Budget of the Universe ● Total Density ~ critical Theory of inflation, measurement of microwave background:ΩTot = ~ 1 ● Baryon Density small Big-Bang nucleosynthesis, CMB: ΩBaryons ~ few % ● Total Matter Density much larger Clusters of galaxies Ωmatter ~ 25% ● Mainly cold dark matter Enables structure formation

  24. What caused the formation of the structures of the universe and what was the origin of masses and forces? Evidence indicates that as the universe cooled after the Big Bang…. These particles began to cluster…. And in these clusters developedpatterns…. Such asquarks…. Andatoms

  25. How do these particles stay together to form structure? FORCES Standard Model:Gravity, Electromagnetic, Strong and Weak

  26. Two Theories describe the forces: Quantum Electrodynamicsand Quantum Chromodynamics. Quantum Electrodynamics (QED): Electric chargeAtoms Molecules Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD): Colour chargeBaryonsNucleus

  27. At current resolution we see the universe as it was ~ 380,000 years after the ‘Big Bang” B I G B A N G What will we see next? Perhaps…..

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