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1914-1918: The World at War

1914-1918: The World at War

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1914-1918: The World at War

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  1. 1914-1918:The Worldat War By: Ms. Susan M. PojerHorace Greeley H. S.Chappaqua, NY

  2. Who’s To Blame? “The world needed a great statesman to keep them out of war, but no such statesman existed” • Britain was in a power race with Germany • Germany was a growing nation trying to prove it’s worth • France was worried about it’s declining importance on the international stage • Russia, Austria Hungary and the Ottoman Empire were fighting enlightenment ideas of socialism and equality

  3. The Schlieffen Plan • France was identified as the German Empire’s most dangerous opponent • The Plan: • Attack France first, going through Belgium • 6 Weeks • Once France was in hand, use the strong railway system to move troops to the Russian front

  4. German Atrocities in Belgium August – September 1914 murder of civilians, mass executions, rapes, mutilations, arson

  5. Mobilization • Home by Christmas! • No major war in 50 years! • Nationalism! It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there!

  6. Recruitment Posters

  7. A Young Australian Recruit

  8. Recruits of the Central Powers A German Soldier Says Farewell to His Mother Austro-Hungarians

  9. New French Recruits

  10. A German Boy Pretends to Be a Soldier

  11. The Western Front: A “War of Attrition”

  12. A Multi-Front War

  13. The Western Front

  14. Trench Warfare • Read the story: A Suffolk Farmhand at Gallipoli • Pick out a quote that you think portrays the meaning of the story • Pick out one word to describe Trench Warfare

  15. Trench Warfare “No Man’s Land” Video

  16. Verdun – February, 1916 • German offensive that lasted 10 months • French Resistance “They Shall Not Pass” • Germans finally abandoned the attack after losing 330,000 men to the French 350,000 men

  17. The Somme – July, 1916 • The Allied offensive, lasted 4 months • The British sent a large force to help France goal was to use numbers to break the Germans • Gained 7 miles of ground at the cost of 620,000 men • 1st Battle to use Tanks (the new British invention)

  18. War IsHELL !!

  19. Sacrifices in War

  20. TheEasternFront "When [such a] mass suffers enormous losses ; when they feel, as they will feel, that other and less costly means of achieving the same end might have been adopted, what will become of their morale?"Henderson • Stats: • 3 Million Med Died • 9 Million Men Wounded • Every Country Lost It’s Form of Government

  21. Ottoman Empire Joins the Central Powers German Empires early victories (“We will win the war in 6 weeks”) Clashes in the Middle East and Africa with the Allied Powers over colonies Russian aggression in the Balkan Wars

  22. Russia invaded E. Prussia Aug 17th 1914 Germany countered For two years each side gained and lost land Red- Russia Purple- AHE Yellow- Germany Orange Line- Russian advance 1915

  23. Armenia • A Christian people living next to Russia, but part of the Ottoman Empire • As the Russian army threatened this border, the Turkish government “resettled” them. • Armed roundups began April 24, 1915 • 2 Million died in “resettlement” camps

  24. If there was something like the Vietnam War Memorial for all the casualties in WW1 it would be 14 miles long.

  25. The War at Sea • Prior to WW1 the major powers formed an international law that stated countries could ONLY blockade contraband (articles of war) • During WW1 Britain ignored this agreement and tried to starve the Central Powers into submission • Neutral Powers, mainly America objected • “freedom of the seas” • German’s responded with the submarine • Unrefined weapon- only used to sink other ships • Germany notified the international community it would sink any ship off Britain’s coast • The Lusitania was sunk May 9th 1915 • Sunk in 18 minutes • 1,198 people died, 128 Americans • In 2008 divers found Remington Bullets in the wreckage, which supports Germany’s claims

  26. The“Colonial”Fronts

  27. Lawrence of ArabiaThe Hero of the “Arab Revolt”, 1916-18 "I decided to go my own way, with or without orders". • Ability to speak Arabic led to his commission • Renown for not following protocol and his use of guerilla tactics against the Turks • The British were losing their campaign in the Middle East. Lawrence used untrained, undisciplined Arab/Native fighters to harass and eventually overcome the Turks • Fun Fact: He died at the age of 45 on a motorcycle doing 90mph while trying to avoid two boys who walked into his path.

  28. Sikh British Soldiers in India

  29. Fighting in Africa Black Soldiers in the German Schutztruppen[German E. Africa] British Sikh Mountain Gunners

  30. Fighting in Africa 3rd British Battalion, Nigerian Brigade

  31. Fighting in Salonika, Greece French colonial marine infantry fromCochin, China - 1916

  32. Crash Course •

  33. Womenand theWarEffort

  34. Financing the War

  35. For Recruitment

  36. Munitions Workers

  37. French Women Factory Workers

  38. German Women Factory Workers

  39. Working in the Fields

  40. A Woman Ambulance Driver

  41. Red Cross Nurses

  42. Women in the Army Auxiliary

  43. Russian Women Soldiers “The Women’s Battalion of Death” • 2,000 women ages 13-25 • Fought in the June Offensive 1917 • In 3 months their numbers were down to 250

  44. Effects of the War on Women • Voting (maybe not as influential as it seems) • England: Right to vote was granted by the 1918 Representation of the Peoples Act (385 to 55 margin) • France: Vote not granted until after WWII • Work • “A truly liberating experience” “Glory of Britain” • Jobs were often broken down into simpler unskilled tasks • When men returned home many women left the workforce to care for them • By 1931 wages had returned to pre-war levels

  45. AmericaJoinstheAllies

  46. The Sinking of the Lusitania

  47. The Zimmerman Telegram

  48. The YanksAre Coming!

  49. Americans in the Trenches