Download
management of patients with conditions of the upper respiratory tract n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Management of Patients with Conditions of the Upper Respiratory Tract PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Management of Patients with Conditions of the Upper Respiratory Tract

Management of Patients with Conditions of the Upper Respiratory Tract

301 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Management of Patients with Conditions of the Upper Respiratory Tract

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Management of Patients with Conditions of the Upper Respiratory Tract Lecture 3 Chapter 22 Brunner’s

  2. Common Cold AKA: • Rhinitis • Viral rhinitis Pathophysiology • Rhinovirus • “Infection with acute inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity”

  3. Common Cold Etiology • Airborne • Peak Times • Sept, Jan & April • Duration • 5-14 days

  4. Common Cold Clinical Manifestations • Nasal congestion • Runny nose • Sore throat • Sneezing • Malaise • Afibrile • H/A • Cough

  5. Common Cold Dx exams & Procedures • S&S • Culture

  6. Common Cold Tx methodology • Focus – relief • Tx not shorten • Fluids • Warm, moist air • Medications • OTC

  7. Common Cold Medications • Antihistamines • Action • H1 blockers  inhibits action • X push off  • Take early • Allergies

  8. Common Cold Medications • Antihistamines • Rx effect • Prevents salivary, gastric, lacrimal and bronchial secretions • Relieves • Sneezing • Rhinorrhea • Nasal congestion

  9. Common Cold Medications • Antihistamines • Side effects • Drowsiness • Drying • Examples • Allergra • Claritin • Benadryl

  10. Common Cold Medications • Decongestants • Rx Actions • Shrink engorged nasal mucus membranes • Side Effects • Rebound congestion • Insomnia

  11. Common Cold Medications • Decongestants • Examples • Sudafed • Vicks inhaler • Afrin

  12. Common Cold Medications • Anti-tussives • Rx Action • Side effects • Example

  13. Common Cold Medications • Analgesics • Tylenol (Acetomenaphen) • Motrin (ibuprofen) • NSAID • Non-narcotic

  14. Common Cold Medications • Vitamin C

  15. Common Cold Medications • Antibiotics • Prophylactic • Examples • Sulfonamides • Penicillins • Cephalosporins • Tetrcyclines • Aminglycosides • Quinolones • Macrolides • Vancomycin

  16. Common Cold Medications • Anti-biotic • Side-effects • N/V • Yeast infections • Resistance

  17. Common Cold Medications • Echinacea • Action • Stim. immune system • Anti-bacterial • Anti-inflammatory • Use • 10-14 days • Long tem use • i immune system

  18. Common Cold Nrs Managements • See MD > 2 wks • Prevention How do you prevent the cold from getting you? • Hand wash • Cover mouth • Throw away tissue • Avoid crowds • Vaccine • Eat right • Sleep • Stress • Exercise • Smoking • Allergens • Animals • Carpet

  19. Common Cold Complications • Bronchitis • Pneumonia • Conjunctivitis

  20. Sinusitis: sinus infection Pathophysiology • Inflammation of the mucus membrane of one or more sinuses • Blocks the egress of sinuses

  21. Sinusitis: sinus infection Etiology • Bacterial or viral? • #1 bacterial • Tooth abscess • Allergies • Structural abnormalities

  22. Sinusitis: sinus infection Clinical manifestations • Pain • Maxillary • Over cheek and upper teeth • Ethmoid • Btw & behind eyes • Frontal • Forehead • Ethmoid sinusitis

  23. Sinusitis: sinus infection Clinical manifestations • Anosnia • H/A • Fever? • Fatigue? • Foul breath?

  24. Sinusitis: sinus infection Dx • S&S • X-ray, CT, MRI • C & S

  25. Sinusitis: sinus infection Med Tx • Antibiotics • Analgesics • No aspirin • Nasal decongestants • Mucolytic agents • Surgery

  26. Sinusitis: sinus infection NRS interventions • Fluids • h • Position • HOB h • Activity • Rest • Moist hot-packs • Cleaning techniques • Irrigate nose

  27. Sinusitis: sinus infection Prevention • Avoid contributing factors: • Cold • Smoking • Fatigue • URI • Dentist

  28. Sinusitis: sinus infection Complications • Osteomylitis • Cellulitis of the orbit • Abscess • Meningitis

  29. Sinusitis: sinus infection • Surgery • Post-op care • Position • Side lying  • semi-fowler • Ice • Monitor for • Bleeding • i visual acuity • Pain • S&S of infection • Oral care • Packing x 48 hrs • No blowing • Tarry stools • Avoid constipation

  30. Acute Pharyngitis Pathophysiology • AKA: sore throat, strep throat • Inflammation of the throat

  31. Acute Pharyngitis Etiology • 70% • Viral • Bacterial • Streptococcus

  32. Acute Pharyngitis Clinical manifestations • Sore throat • Febrile • Dysphagia • Exudate • Lymphnoids • Malaise* • Hoarseness* • Cough* • Rhinitis*

  33. Acute Pharyngitis Dx exams • Throat culture • Rapid screening

  34. Acute Pharyngitis - Tx • Viral • Supportive • Like a cold • Bacterial • Antibiotics • Diet • Liquid/soft • Analgesics • Tylenol • Anti-tussive

  35. Acute Pharyngitis - Nrs • Rest • Rashes? • Communicable disease • Warm saline gargles • Temp 105-110 F • Diet • Liquid • Fluids • h • Ice collar • Oral care

  36. Acute Pharyngitis Complications • Sinusitis • Ottis media • Peritonsillar abscess • Scarlet fever • Rheumatic Fever • 2-3 wk /p subsides • Heart damage • Mital valve damage

  37. Tonsillitis & Adenoiditis Pathophysiology • Tonsils • Location • Oropharynx • Lymph tissue • Adenoids • Location • Nasopharynx

  38. Tonsillitis & Adenoiditis Etiology • Streptococcus • Low resistance • Children

  39. Tonsillitis & Adenoiditis – S&S • Sore throat • Febrile & chills • Snoring • Dysphagia • Adenoids • Mouth breathing • Duration • 1-2 wks

  40. Tonsillitis & Adenoiditis - Dx Dx • Visualize • C&S • Mono

  41. Tonsillitis & Adenoiditis Post-op care • Hemorrhaging • Coffee ground emeses • Bright red emeses • Pulse • h • Temp • h • Restlessness • Tarry stool • h swallowing

  42. Tonsillitis & Adenoiditis Post-op • Position • Prone/side lying until… • Gag returns • Semi-fowler’s • Pain control • Ice collar • Acetaminophen • Not aspirin

  43. Tonsillitis & Adenoiditis Post-op • Diet • Ice cold fluids • Adv. To normal ASAP • 2-3 days • Milk products • i • Avoid • Spicy • Hot • Acidic • Rough

  44. Tonsillitis & Adenoiditis • Post-op • Pt education • S&S of hemorrhaging • Mouthwash good • Avoid • Coughing • Sneezing • Vigorous nose blow • Vigorous gargling • Rough foods • Expect black tarry stools • Normal activity ASAP

  45. Peritonsillar Abscess Pathophysiology • Pus & blood filled sacs on tonsil Etiology • Complication of strep throat

  46. Peritonsillar Abscess S&S • Pain • Local • Radiates  ear • Dysphagia • drooling • Dysphasia • Fever • Red throat

  47. Peritonsillar Abscess Tx • Antibiotics • Incision & drain • Lanse • Warm saline irrigation • Hydrogen peroxide • Analgesics • Topical • Tylenol • No aspirin • ? narcotics • Ice collar • No smoking • Ventilator?

  48. Laryngitis • Pathophysiology • Inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the larynx • With edema of the vocal cords

  49. Laryngitis • Etiology • Viral • Voice abuse • Dust

  50. Laryngitis • Risk factors • Airborne irritants • Cold • Resent RTI • Smoking