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Chapter 7 Implementing Strategies: Management Issues

Chapter 7 Implementing Strategies: Management Issues

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Chapter 7 Implementing Strategies: Management Issues

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  1. Chapter 7Implementing Strategies:Management Issues Strategic Management: Concepts and Cases. 9th edition Fred R. David PowerPoint Slides by Anthony F. Chelte Western New England College Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  2. Chapter Outline • The nature of Strategy Implementation • Annual Objectives • Policies • Resource Allocation Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  3. Chapter Outline • Managing Conflict • Matching Structure with Strategy • Restructuring, Reengineering, and E-Engineering • Linking Performance and Pay to Strategies Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  4. Chapter Outline • Managing Resistance to Change • Managing the Natural Environment • Creating a Strategy-Supportive Culture Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  5. Chapter Outline • Production/Operations Concerns When Implementing Strategies • Human Resource Concerns When Implementing Strategies Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  6. Implementing Strategies: Management Issues Pretend that every single person you meet has a sign around his or her neck that says, “Make me feel important.” -- Mary Kay Ash, CEO of Mary Kay, Inc. Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  7. Implementing Strategies: Management Issues Strategy Analysis & Choice Contrasting strategy formulation and strategy implementation • Formulation is positioning forces before the action • Implementation is managing forces during the action Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  8. Implementing Strategies: Management Issues Strategy Analysis & Choice Contrasting strategy formulation and strategy implementation • Formulation focuses on effectiveness • Implementation focuses on efficiency Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  9. Implementing Strategies: Management Issues Strategy Analysis & Choice Contrasting strategy formulation and strategy implementation • Formulation is primarily an intellectual process • Implementation is primarily an operational process Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  10. Implementing Strategies: Management Issues Strategy Analysis & Choice Contrasting strategy formulation and strategy implementation • Formulation requires good intuitive and analytical skills • Implementation requires special motivation and leadership skills Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  11. Implementing Strategies: Management Issues Strategy Analysis & Choice Contrasting strategy formulation and strategy implementation • Formulation requires coordination among a few individuals • Implementation requires coordination among many persons Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  12. Implementing Strategies: Management Issues Strategy Analysis & Choice Strategy implementation – • Varies among different types and sizes of organizations Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  13. Implementing Strategies: Management Issues Strategy Analysis & Choice Strategy implementation Actions – • Altering sales territories • Adding new departments • Closing facilities • Hiring new employees • Cost-control procedures • Changing advertising strategies • Building new facilities Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  14. Management Perspectives Formulation to Implementation transition – • Shift in responsibility • From strategists to division and functional managers Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  15. Management Issues Annual Objectives Policies Management Issues Resources Organizational structure Restructuring Rewards/Incentives Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  16. Management Issues (continued) Resistance to Change Managers & strategy Management Issues Supportive culture Production/operations Human resources Downsizing Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  17. Annual Objectives • Decentralized activity • Involves all managers in the firm Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  18. Annual Objectives • Basis for allocating resources • Primary mechanism for evaluating managers • Major instrument for monitoring progress toward long-term objectives • Establish organizational, divisional, and departmental priorities Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  19. Annual Objectives • Horizontal consistency of objectives • Vertical consistency of objectives Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  20. Annual Objectives Objectives should state – • Quantity • Quality • Cost • Time Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  21. Policies Policies facilitate solving recurring problems and guide the implementation of strategy Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  22. Policies Policies set – • Boundaries • Constraints • limits Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  23. Policies Example Issues requiring management policy -- • To offer extensive or limited management development workshops and seminars • To centralize or decentralize employee-training activities • To recruit through employment agencies, college campuses, and/or newspapers • To promote from within or hire from the outside • To establish a high- or low-safety stock of inventory • To buy lease, or rent new production equipment Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  24. Resource Allocation Resource Allocation – A central management activity that allows for strategy execution Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  25. Resource Allocation Four types of resources – • Financial resources • Physical resources • Human resources • Technological resources Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  26. Managing Conflict Conflict – Disagreement between two or more parties on one or more issues Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  27. Managing Conflict • Conflict is not always “bad” • Absence of conflict • Signal indifference or apathy • Can energize opposing groups to action • May help managers identify problems Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  28. Managing Conflict Conflict Management and Resolution • Avoidance • Defusion • Confrontation Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  29. Matching Structure with Strategy Changes in Strategy Changes in Structure • Structure largely dictates how objectives and policies will be established. • Structure dictates how resources will be allocated Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  30. Chandler’s Strategy-StructureRelationship New strategy Is formulated New administrative problems emerge Organizational performance declines Organizational performance improves New organizational structure is established Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  31. Basic Forms of Structure • Functional Structure • Groups tasks and activities by business function • Divisional Structure • Decentralized and organized by geography, product, customer, or process Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  32. Basic Forms of Structure • Strategic Business Unit Structure (SBU) • Groups similar divisions; delegates authority and responsibility to SBU executive • Matrix Structure • Most complex of all designs. Depends upon both vertical and horizontal flows of authority and communication Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  33. Restructuring Restructuring – Reducing the size of the firm in terms of number of employees, divisions, or units, and the number of hierarchical levels in the firm’s organizational structure Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  34. Restructuring Also called – • Downsizing • Rightsizing • Delayering Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  35. Restructuring • Employed when ratios out of line with benchmarked competitors • Primary benefit sought is cost reduction Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  36. Reengineering Reengineering – Involves reconfiguring or redesigning work, jobs, and processes to improve cost, quality, service and speed. Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  37. Reengineering Also called – • Process management • Process innovation • Process redesign Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  38. Reengineering Reengineering – Concerned more with employee and customer well-being than shareholder well-being Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  39. Linking Performance and Payto Strategies Most companies practicing pay-for-performance Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  40. Linking Performance and Payto Strategies • Dual bonus system becoming more common • Based on both annual objectives and long-term objectives • Profit Sharing • Incentive compensation used by 30% of companies • Gain Sharing • Performance targets set for employees or departments Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  41. Tests for Performance-Pay Plans Does the plan capture attention? Do employees understand the plan? Is the plan improving communication? Does the plan pay out when it should? Is the company or unit performing better? Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  42. Managing Resistance to Change Change raises anxiety over fear of: • Economic loss • Inconvenience • Uncertainty • Break in status-quo Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  43. Managing Resistance to Change Resistance to change – • Single greatest threat to successful strategy implementation Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  44. Change Strategies • Force Change Strategy • Educative Change Strategy • Rational or Self-Interest Change Strategy Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  45. Managing the Natural Environment • Wide appreciation for firms that conduct operations that “mend” rather than “harm” the environment. Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  46. Creating a Strategy-Supportive Culture Strategists should strive to preserve, emphasize, and build upon aspects of existing culture that support new strategies. Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  47. Creating a Strategy-Supportive Culture Elements linking culture to strategy: • Formal statements of philosophy, charters, etc. used for recruitment and selection, and socialization • Designing of physical spaces, facades, buildings • Deliberate role modeling, teaching and coaching • Explicit reward and status system, promotion criteria • Stories, legends, myths about key people and events • What leaders pay attention to, measure and control • Leader reactions to critical incidents and crises • How the organization is designed and structured • Organizational systems and procedures • Criteria used for recruitment, selection, promotion, retirement Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  48. Production/Operations Concerns • Production processes typically constitute more than 70% of firm’s total assets • Decisions on: • Plant size • Inventory/inventory control • Quality control • Cost control • Technological innovation Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  49. Human Resource Concerns • Assessing staffing needs and costs • Develop performance incentives • ESOPs • Child-care policies • Work-life balance Fred R. David Prentice Hall

  50. Key Terms • Annual objectives • Avoidance • Benchmarking • Bonus system • Conflict • Confrontation • Culture • Defusion • Delayering Fred R. David Prentice Hall