EGYPT - Religion Gods and Godesses, Book of Dead,Spirit of Dead, Mummification, and the Afterlife
Gods and Goddesses • Ancient Egyptians worship of 2000 different gods • Before Egypt was united their were 40 tribes all with different gods • After all the Gods were kept, meaning many gods had similar characteristics • Animals were considered the living images of the gods How Gods Dress • Tunic with suspenders. • Dress with suspenders. • The short loincloth • The short-sleeved overall • The full-length dress
Ra (re) Sun God Appearance: A man with the head of a Hawk wearing a sun disk headdress He was the most important God The ancient Egyptians believed that each night Ra was swallowed night by Nut, the sky goddess then reborn in the morning. Thoth Appearance: A man with the head of an ibis holding a writing palette Thoth was the go of Knowledge and writing It was said that he gave the gift of hieroglyphics. Ma’at Appearance: A Woman with a feather on top of her head Ma'at was the goddess of truth, justice and harmony. Ma’at was oftene associated with the balance of things on earth. Anubis Appearance: A Man with the head of a jackal Anubis was the god of embalming and the dead. Jackals were often seen found in cemeteries, because of this it was believed that Anubis watched over the dead.
Horus Appearance: Man with the head of a hawk Horus was a god of the sky. He is the protector of the ruler of Egypt. It was believed that the pharaoh was the 'living Horus'. Amun Appearance: A Man with a ram-head wearing an ostrich feather hat Amun was one of the most powerful gods in ancient Egypt. At the height of Egyptian civilisation he was called the 'King of the Gods'. Osiris Appearance: A mummified man who is wearing a white headdress with feathers Osiris was the god of the dead, and ruler of the Underworld. Osiris was also the god of vegetation (plant matter) that’s why he is green in appearance. Atum Appearance: Man with the double crown Atum was a creator god. It was belived that Atum was the first god to exist on earth.
BOOK OF THE DEAD (reu nu pert em hru) • In Egyptian called reu nu pert em hru which translates into "The Book of Coming forth by Day" • Contains spells, charms, passwords and numbers to help secure an easy passage for the deceased into the after life • Egyptians believed that knowledge of the appropriate spells was essential to achieving happiness in the next life • first inscribed on the sarcophogaus of the deceased in 1600 BCE, then later written on papyrus paper • there are many different versions of the Book of the Dead including: * Heliopolitan version which is known from five • copies inscribed in the tombs of Kings from the fifth dynasty and edited by priests of Annu * Theban version which is the most modern version • written on papyrus paper and organized into chapters containing only hieroglyphics * Saite version which is very strictly organized • spell 125 is one of the most well known segments which is the judging of the soul done by Osiris and his 42 judges • The weighing of the heart against Ma'at is considered one of the more important chapters • "Book of the Dead" meant to aid deceased in not dying a second time and becoming an akh The book of dead inscribed on tomb weighing of the heart against Ma'at’s Feather
SPIRIT OF THE DEAD • Egyptians believe that each person is composed of three essential elements: ba (soul/personality), ka (life force), and the body in which the soul is kept • Ka, ba and akh are believed to be immortal aspects of the soul thus remaining alive inside the body after death • In the Opening of the Mouth ceremony, the ba and ka are released into the next world • Upon death, the ba and ka become separated from the body but remain alive • Because the body of the deceased is mummified, the body must rely on the ba to seek out the ka • During the night when Ra visits the underworld, the ba are allowed to freely roam but must always return to the underworld because that is where the body lies and the ba and body are part of the same being • If the ba is successful in reuniting itself with the ka, it becomes an akh • If successful in becoming an akh, the akh inhabits the world after as it is believed by the Egyptians that three kinds of beings inhabit the world after death: gods, the dead (those who's ba and ka have not been united) and akhs • Akhs are believed to be the "spirit of the dead" • Ba Ka Ba leaving the body
Embalming the Body Wash the body with good smelling palm wines and rinse with water from the Nile. Cut a slit in the left side of the body and remove internal organs the liver, stomach, lungs and intestines are placed in canopic jars. imsety the human headed god holds the liver hapy the baboon headed god holds the lungs duamutef the jackal headed god holds the stomach qebehsenuef the falcon headed god holds the intestines A hook is then inserted up the nose to remove the brains the heart remains in the body because the Egyptians believed that your heart was the most important aspect of the human. the body is then covered and stuffed with which will help to dry out the body The body is then placed in the desert for 40 days. After the 40 days the body is then washed again with Nile water the skin is the covered in oils. Wrapping First the head and neck are wrapped with linen. The fingers and toes are wrapped individually. The arms and legs are wrapped separately from the body In the layers the embalmers place amulets to protect the body in the underworld. The 'isis knot' amulet protects the body and ' Plummet' represents personal balance Priests read out spells while the mummy is being wrapped. Papyrus scroll filled with spells from the book of the dead is wrapped in the mummies hands A cloth is then wrapped over the whole body and a painting of Osiris is Painted on top. A funeral is then held for the dead person before the body is layered to rest they have a ritual called 'the opening of he mouth' this lets the dead person eat and drink one last time Mummification Canopic Jars
The After Life • Death is not seen as the last stage of life • Before the mummy can reach the underworld it has to pass through seven • gates, aided by the magic spells inscribed upon the funerary objects, then • the dead person arrives in the presence of Osiris (god of the underworld) • Osiris then performs a ceremony called the 'weighing of the heart' • Heart of the dead person is weighed on a scale by the jackal headed god • Anubis (god of dead) against the feather of Ma'at (goddess of truth) • Balancing the scale meant immortality • If the scale did not balance then Amemt (crocodile headed god) would eat • the heart, and Seth, murderer of Osiris ate the rest of the body