EMOTIONS & MOODS THE MYTH OF RATIONALITY AT WORK Keep a damper on emotions at work because they are “irrational” Emotions of any kind are disruptive…not constructive Create an “emotion-free” organization AFFECT A broad range of feelings that people experience. Affect can be experienced in the form of emotions or moods. EMOTIONS Intense feelings directed toward someone or something MOODS Less intense feelings that lack a specific cause or stimulus
EMOTIONS & MOODS DEFINED EMOTIONS Caused by a specific event Very brief in duration (seconds or minutes) Usually very specific…anger, fear, sadness, happiness, disgust, etc. Usually accompanied by distinct facial expressions (visual cues) Action-oriented (plan to do something) MOODS Cause is often general and unclear Last longer than emotions (hours or days) More general (either positive affect or negative affect) Generally not indicated by distinct expressions Cognitive in nature (thinking or brooding)
BASIC EMOTIONS UNIVERSAL EMOTIONSR. DESCARTES “Six simple and primitive passions” WONDER, LOVE, HATRED, DESIRE, JOY, SADNESS THE EMOTIONAL CONTINUUM HAPPINESS – SURPRISE – FEAR – SADNESS – ANGER – DISGUST BIOLOGICAL FOUNDATION OF EMOTIONS LIMBIC SYSTEM … when active, you see things in a negative light Inactive limbic system = experience positive emotions (happiness, joy) Active limbic system = negative emotions dominate (anger, guilt) When you encounter negative information…how do you react to it?
SOURCES OF EMOTIONS & MOODS 1. PERSONALITY PERSONALITY PREDISPOSES US TO CERTAIN MOODS & EMOTIONS SOME PEOPLE FEEL ANGER AND GUILT MORE READILY THAN OTHERS OTHERS FEEL CALM AND RELAXED NO MATTER WHAT THE SITUATION BOBBY KNIGHT v. BILL GATES High “AFFECT INTENSITY” CRIES EASILY LAUGHS UNCONTROLLABLY GETS MAD AND ANGRY DO YOU LET YOUR FEELINGS “SHOW?” -- EXTRAVERTS HIDE MY EMOTIONS -- INTROVERTS
SOURCES OF EMOTIONS & MOODS - 2 2. TIME OF DAY AND WEEK WEEKLY CYCLE NEGATIVE MOODS – HIGHEST ON SUNDAYS & MONDAYS (BEGINNING OF THE WEEK) POSITIVE MOODS -- HIGHEST AT THE END OF THE WEEK (THURSDAY – SATURDAY) DAILY CYCLE People are generally in lower spirits in the morning. During the day, our moods improve and then decline in the evening. There is really no significant difference between “morning” or “evening” persons…the daily rise-and-fall pattern is the same for both groups.
SOURCES OF EMOTIONS & MOODS - 3 3. THE WEATHER DO WE HAVE MORE POSITIVE MOODS ON BRIGHT, SUNNY DAYS THAN RAINY ONES? CONTRARY TO POPULAR BELIEF - MOOD AND THE WEATHER ARE NOT RELATED 4. STRESS Stressful daily events negatively affect employees’ moods. The effects of stress are cumulative…even if the stress isn’t severe. Constant, prolonged exposure to stress leads to depression and negative feelings. 5. SOCIAL INTERACTION Social activities increase positive mood and have little effect on negative mood PHYSICAL, INFORMAL, EPICUREAN – Activities strongly associated with positive mood. FORMAL MEETINGS, SEDENTARY ACTIVITIES – not as likely to generate positive moods SOCIAL INTERACTIONS HAVE LONG-TERM HEALTH BENEFITS – people live longer! BE HAPPY --- AND BE HEALTHY!
SOURCES OF EMOTIONS & MOODS - 4 6. SLEEP SLEEP QUALITY AFFECTS MOOD (75% not getting enough sleep) SLEEP-DEPRIVED WORKERS – greater feelings of fatigue, anger, and hostility…impaired decision-making & alertness 7. EXERCISE Exercise modestly enhances people’s positive mood…most pronounced for depressed people. 8. AGE YOUNG PEOPLE DO NOT EXPERIENCE MORE POSITIVE MOODS THAN OLDER PEOPLE NEGATIVE EMOTIONS SEEM TO OCCUR LESS AS PEOPLE GET OLDER “Emotional Experience” tends to improve with age – as we age, we feel fewer negative emotions.
SOURCES OF EMOTIONS & MOODS - 5 9. GENDER CONTRASTED WITH MEN, WOMEN ARE… MORE IN TOUCH WITH THEIR FEELINGS SHOW GREATER EMOTIONAL EXPRESSION EXPERIENCE EMOTIONS MORE INTENSELY MORE LIKELY TO DISPLAY POSITIVE & NEGATIVE EMOTIONS (except anger) ARE BETTER AT READING NONVERBAL CUES CAUSES OF THIS? THE DIFFERENT WAYS MEN AND WOMEN HAVE BEEN SOCIALIZED IN SOCIETY MEN EXPECTED TO BE TOUGH, BRAVE, DON’T CRY, ETC. WOMEN EXPECTED TO BE NURTURING, WARM, AND FRIENDLY (Smile?) WOMEN JUST HAVE A BETTER ABILITY TO READ OTHERS & PRESENT THEIR EMOTIONS THAN MEN WOMEN MAY HAVE A GREATER NEED FOR SOCIAL APPROVAL & A HIGHER PROPENSITY TO DISPLAY POSITIVE EMOTIONS, SUCH AS HAPPINESS.
EXTERNAL CONTSTRAINTS ON EMOTIONS 1. ORGANIZATIONAL EXPECTATIONS JOB REQUIREMENTS DISNEY -- LEARN TO SMILE…AND ACT HAPPY! DOCTORS & AIR-TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS – NEVER SHOW EMOTIONS & GET EXCITED EVANGELISTS, SPORTS ANNOUNCERS, LAWYERS – SHOW EMOTIONS T/B EFFECTIVE THE CUSTOMER IS ALWAYS RIGHT – EVEN IF THEY’RE RUDE, IGNORANT, AND DEMANDING LEARN TO PROJECT ONE EMOTION WHILE FEELING ANOTHER (…put on a “Happy Face”) (Emotional Dissonance) Felt emotions v. Displayed emotions SURFACE ACTING ... Deals with DISPLAYED emotions (…VERY STRESSFUL ON THE PERSON) DEEP ACTING … Deals with FELT emotions 2. CULTURAL INFLUENCES Americans value enthusiasm Chinese consider negative emotions ro be useful and constructive Norms for expressing emotions differ across cultural groups Americans – smiling is a sign of friendliness – viewed positively Muslins - smiling is a sign of sexual attraction…so women don’t smile at men Japanese - smiling indicates a lack of intelligence (…an ignorant airhead!) French – make no effort to hide their personal feelings about customers
EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE People who know their own emotions and are good at reading others’ feelings. Managers high in EI seem to be better managers FIVE DIMENSIONS Self-awareness Being aware of what you’re feeling Self-management The ability to manage your own emotions and impulses Self-motivation The ability to persist in the face of setbacks and failures Empathy The ability to sense how others are feeling Social Skills The ability to handle the emotions of others
PROS & CONS OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE STRENGTHS INTUITIVE APPEAL - being street smart and socially intelligent makes sense IT PREDICTS JOB PERFORMANCE - correlations found are significant N=59 IT’S BIOLOGICALLY BASED - it’s neurological and affects decision-making CAUTIONS IT’S TOO VAGUE/TOO BROAD - no one is sure what this concept is… - is it intelligence? …self-discipline? …empathy? …or self-awareness? IT ISN’T MEASURED CONSISTENTLY - we haven’t used good methodology IS IT VALID? - it’s so closely related to personality and intelligence - when you control for these factors, there isn’t anything left that’s unique
HOW MANAGERS MIGHT USE EMOTIONS AND MOODS - 1 SELECTION Air Force - hires with high EI scores …2.6 times more successful, lower turnover L’Oreal – salespersons with high EI scores outsold traditionally-hired salespeople DECISION-MAKING Negative mood persons made more accurate decisions , but… Depressed people make poorer decisions than happy people Positive mood people are more likely to use heuristics or “rules of thumb” and less likely to explore all possible options, etc. CREATIVITY Positive mood people are more creative than negative mood people - more flexible and open in their thinking But, positive moods may allow people to relax & not engage in critical thinking MOTIVATION Giving people feedback about performance affects mood, which impacts motivation
HOW MANAGERS MIGHT USE EMOTIONS AND MOODS - 2 LEADERSHIP Effective leaders rely on emotional appeals to help convey their messages When they become excited & enthusiastic, it energizes their subordinates By arousing emotions and linking them to an appealing vision – getting the workers to accept change is more likely NEGOTIATION Negotiators who feign anger have an advantage over their opponent, because the opponent concludes that no more concessions are likely (short-term effect) . However, poor performance as a negotiator will lead to negative feelings which will impact future relationships (longer-term relationships) CUSTOMER SERVICE High quality service often puts workers into an “emotionally dissonant” position which leads to stress, lower job satisfaction, and burnout. When employees are cranky and out of sorts, it has a negative impact on customers. But, positive worker attitudes can also be “caught” by customers (emotional contagion) …leading to higher sales and greater loyalty to the company.
HOW MANAGERS MIGHT USE EMOTIONS AND MOODS - 3 CONFLICT Successfully resolving conflicts between coworkers will involve emotions. The manager must try to get the parties to work through the emotional elements in the conflict…you can’t ignore emotions and only look at the rational and task concerns. JOB ATTITUDES People who had a good day at work tend to be in a better mood when they go home. People who had a stressful day have a hard time relaxing at home in the evening. DEVIANT WORK BEHAVIOR Negative emotions can lead to a number of deviant work behaviors which harm or threaten the organization and its members. Envy and resentment lead to hostile acts and behaviors.
HOW CAN MANAGERS INFLUENCE MOODS? IMPROVE MOODS BY * SHOWING A FUNNY VIDEO CLIP GIVING WORKERS A SMALL BAG OF CANDY HAVE THEM TASTE A PLEASANT BEVERAGE USE HUMOR IN THE WORKPLACE GIVE SMALL TOKENS OF APPRECIATION SELECT POSITIVE TEAM MEMBERS (Contagion effect) * These techniques seem to work best with the millenial generation