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Chapter 7: From Nationalism to sectionalism. Big Picture: The War of 1812 filled Americans with national pride. Yet against the backdrop of an emerging national identity, two distinct economic systems were developing in the North and South. Chapter 7 Section 1: The Rise of Nationalism.
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Chapter 7: From Nationalism to sectionalism Big Picture: The War of 1812 filled Americans with national pride. Yet against the backdrop of an emerging national identity, two distinct economic systems were developing in the North and South.
Chapter 7 Section 1: The Rise of Nationalism Main Idea: Nationalism contributed to the growth of American culture and influenced domestic and foreign policies.
A New American Culture A Country “in constant motion” • By 1823, Americans were hard at work building their new nation • They slowly began to develop their own unique culture, way of life • Alexis de Tocqueville, French philosopher, observed American society…“in a state of improvement…in which nothing is, or ought to be, permanent…” • Instead of imitating European cultures, Americans began doing things distinctly American.
American Art and Literature • 1825, Hudson River school was established for a group of artists whose landscapes depicted and celebrated the American countryside • Writers: Washington Irving, James Fenimore Cooper, and William Cullen Bryant gained respect in the early 1800s • 1828, American English is published in Noah Webster’s An American Dictionary of the English Language
Nationalism Influences Domestic Policy • Nationalism is the belief that the interests of the nation as a whole are more important than regional interests or that of other countries • Sectionalism is the belief that one’s own section, or region, is more important than the country
John Marshall, chief justice of the US from 1801-1835, was a firm believer in the importance of a strong national government • McCulloch v. Maryland (1819): sided with the national government making it clear that national interests were to be put above state interests • Gibbons v. Ogden (1824): involved steamboat licenses; Ogden had a NY state license to operate, Gibbons had a national license to operate; court favored Gibbons, thus declaring national lawsuperior to state law
The American System • Nationalistic domestic policy by Henry Clay, Speaker of US House of Representatives
A system that sought to implement policies to unify the country • Tariff to protect American industries • Sale of government lands to raise money for national government • Maintenance of a national bank • Government funding of internal improvements or public projects • Never implemented as a unified policy, but did establish tariffs and a bank
Nationalism Guides Foreign Policy James Monroe, president • “the Era of Good Feeling” • Serves 1817-1825 • Economy grew rapidly • Spirit of nationalism and optimism prevailed Rush-Bagot Treaty (1818) • Established borders with Britain at 49th parallel Adams-Onis Treaty (1819) • US acquired Florida and established firm boundary between Louisiana territory and Spanish territory
Monroe Doctrine (policy) • US would view any European attempts to further colonize the Americas “as dangerous to our peace and safety.” • US will not “interfere in the internal concerns” of Europe
Missouri Compromise, 1820 • 1819: 22 states in the Union • 11 “slave” states • 11 “free” states • Means equal representation in the US Senate • Missouri (MO) territory applied to join the Union as slave state • The Compromise • Missouri admitted as slavestate • Maine admitted as free state • Banned slavery in northern part of Louisiana Territory (36º 30’ N)
Chapter 7 ReviewWrite the Questions and Answers Chapter 7 Section 1 • What replaced feelings of sectionalism in the early 1800s? • How did growing nationalism affect domestic policy? • How did growing nationalism affect foreign policy?
Chapter 7 Section 2: The Age of Jackson Main Idea: President Andrew Jackson’s bold actions defined a period of American history.
Path to the Presidency • Jackson served in the army during the Revolutionary War • Practiced law, successful land speculator, served in a variety of government offices • War hero after the Battle of New Orleans in the War of 1812
In 1824, ran for president as a Democratic-Republican • Jackson won popular vote, but not majority of electoral votes • Election to be determined by House of Representatives • Henry Clay gave support to John Quincy Adams, enough votes to become president • Henry Clay was named his secretary of state-was there a secret deal???? • Jackson and supporters called it the “corrupt bargain”
Democratic Party is formed by Jackson and his supporters • Popular war hero, seen as “a man of the people” • National Republican Party is formed by Adams and his supporters • Not popular, administration weakened by scandal and relentless criticism • Appeared to be “out of touch” with the people
Most voting restrictions in many states, like property ownership, were being lifted poor people could now vote these are Jackson’s strongest supporters • Jacksonian Democracy ~ political power exercised by ordinary Americans • One of his first acts in office, replaced many officials with his supporters (actually only 1 in 10 replaced) • Rewarding supporters in this way – spoils system
Indian Removal Act, 1830 • Congress passed law, Jackson approved to relocate 5 native nations west to present-day Oklahoma • Some groups move and face exposure, malnutrition, and disease • The Seminole fight back in hit-and-run attacks • Cherokee fought in the courts
Worchester v. Georgia (1832) • Marshall court ruled against Georgia, cannot take Cherokee lands • Jackson’s response, “…Marshall has made his decision – now let him enforce it.”
Trail of Tears • Treaty signed with Cherokee leaders that favored relocation to get around court • Cherokee were herded by the US Army on a deadly march west • 16,000 forced to leave their homes • 4,000 died from hunger, exposure, disease, and bandits
The National Bank • Henry Clay and Daniel Webster introduced a bill to renew Bank’s charter during election • Jackson vetoed the bill • Major campaign issue in the election of 1832 • Jackson won re-election by a landslide • Jackson ordered money taken out of the Bank and deposited into select state banks, referred to as “pet banks”
Conflict over States’ Rights • People who favored more power to the state governments invoked concept of states’ rights • Based on 10th Amendment that powers “not delegated to the US by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States” are reserved to the states. • Tariffs of 1824 and 1828 • Helped American industry by raising the price on British goods
Forced Southerners to buy northern goods instead of less expensive British goods they were used to • Most Southerners exported their cotton to Britain, didn’t like the interference with international trade • Drove a wedge between Jackson and VP, John C. Calhoun (a southerner) • Tariff of 1828 is commonly referred to as the Tariff of Abominations • Calhoun argues the idea that a state could nullify any law passed by Congress they believed violated the Constitution or not in the best interest of states
States’ Rights Continues Hayne-Webster Debate • Most famous debate in Senate history • Robert Hayne of SC • Federal government is an agreement among states • Nullification gave states a lawful way to protest federal legislation • Daniel Webster of MA • US is one nation, not an agreement of states • “Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable!”
Nullification Crisis • Congress passed another tariff in 1832 • SC declared the tariff “null and void” and threatened to secede (withdraw) from the Union if gov’t tried to enforce • Jackson demanded and received permission from Congress to use military force to collect the tariff • SC declared that bill “null and void” as well • Henry Clay worked out a deal that tariffs would be reduced over a period of 10 years
Chapter 7 ReviewWrite the Questions and Answers Chapter 7 Section 2 • What was Jacksonian Democracy? • How did the Seminole resist the Indian Removal Act? • How did the Cherokee resist the Indian Removal Act? • How did the issues of states’ rights and nullification affect Jackson’s presidency?
Chapter 7 Section 3: The Industrial North Main Idea: The north developed an economy based on industry.
The Industrial Revolution • Birth of modern industry and social changes that accompanied it • Change from human-powered in worker’s homes to machines powered by water and steam engines in huge mills • Replacement of human power with machine power • Began with textiles in Great Britain
The North Industrializes • Samuel Slater violated British law and brought knowledge of industrial machines to America • He and Moses Brown built a water-powered spinning mill • 1stsuccessful textile mill Lowell, Massachusetts
Became center of textile production • Town named after Francis Lowell, wealthy Boston textile merchant • Textile firms opened mills and turned profits quickly (40 mills and 10,000 looms) • Majority of workers were young women, recruited from local farms, known as “Lowell girls” • Lives were strictly regulated by the ringing of bells
The Revolution Spreads • Slowly spread from textile industry to others • The 1830s brings the steam engine, better and more widely available, helped make industry grow fast • Industrialization led to urbanization • People left farms and moved into cities to work in mills and factories • The North changed from small towns and farms and into largecities and factories
Transportation Roads and Canals • National Road constructed (1811-1841) • Stretched 800 miles MD to IL • Network of roads to connect the US, promoting travel and trade
Erie Canal (1825) • 363 mile-long connecting the Great Lakes with the Hudson River and the Atlantic Ocean • Quick and economical way to transport goods to the West and farm products to the East • Led to establishment of NYC
The Steamboat • Its success led to general decline in roads and brought an end to the canal craze1st successful service run by Robert Fulton • 1807 he began operating regular passenger service on the Hudson River others began to build and operate
The Railroad • 1st run in US in 1830, only 23 miles of track at the time • By 1840 more than 3,000miles of track • Speed, power, reliability and carrying capacity made it the preferred means of travel and transport • Its success led to general decline in roads and brought an end to the canal craze
Communication • Printing Press • Steam-powered printing presses introduced in Germany • Soon enabled US publishers to print material much faster and in greater volumes Postal Service • Mail delivery was faster and more available due to steamboats and the railroads • 1800: fewer than 1,000 post offices • 1840: more than 12,000
Telegraph • Patented by Samuel F.B. Morse in 1840 • Device to send messages using electricity through wires • Communication is instantaneous • Other industries are quick to use it to their advantage • Wires were soon to crisscross the nation
Chapter 7 Section 4: The Land of Cotton Main Idea: During the early 1800s, the South developed an economy based on agriculture.
“King Cotton” • Cotton Gin was a simple machine with a major impact on life in the South • Solved the problem of cleaning the cotton • Demand for cotton increasedin the North and in Great Britain
Combination of the 2 led to many American farmers to grow cotton • Land devoted to cotton cultivation soared • Cotton = get rich quick • Cotton was US largest and most valuable exportfrom 1807 until close to the end of the 1800s
The Spread of Slavery • Farming cotton is labor intensive • Land prepared, seeds planted, growing plants tended to, crop picked, cleaned and baled • First farms were small run by families • Wealthier planters bought huge plots of land and used enslaved African Americans
Growth of cotton farming directly led to demand for enslaved African Americans • 1810: 1 million; 1840: 2.5 million (1/3 of southern population) • Most southerners were notslaveholders • Approximately ¼ of the white families in the south owned slaves • Slave labor = more cotton to grow = more money to make (powerful economic incentive)
North vs. South North • Manufacturing and trade • Urbanization, cities grew • Businesses seized new technology in pursuit of efficiency and growth • View change as progress • Exposed to many different people • Slavery viewed as evil
South • Agriculture • Rural • No need for labor-saving devices when there is ample enslaved people to do work • Hold higher value in tradition • Less diverse • Slavery is viewed (by most white people) as vital to economy, natural situation, and practice sanctioned by Christian religion