Adolescence Module 05
What is Adolescence? Module 5: Adolescence
Adolescence • The period between childhood and adulthood • From puberty (the start of sexual maturation) to independence from parents
Physical Development in Adolescence Module 5: Adolescence
Puberty • The period of sexual maturation where the person becomes capable of reproducing • Starts at approximately age 11 in females and age 13 in males • Major growth spurt
Primary Sex Characteristics • The body structures that make sexual reproduction possible • Ovaries in females • Testes in males
Secondary Sex Characteristics • Nonreproductive sexual characteristics • Breasts and hips in females • Facial hair and voice changes in males
Sexual Orientation • One’s attraction toward people of a particular gender • Usually heterosexual or homosexual; small minority bisexual
Heterosexual • A sexual orientation in which a person is attracted to members of the opposite sex • “straight”
Homosexual • A sexual orientation in which a person is attracted to members of the same sex • Approximately 3-4% of the male population and 1-2% of the female population
Cognitive Development: Reasoning Module 5: Adolescence
Formal Operational Stage • Piaget’s fourth and final stage of cognitive development • The person can think logically, hypothetically, and in the abstract • Qualitative change over the thinking of a child
Cognitive Development in Adolescence: Morality Module 5: Adolescence
Heinz Steals the Drug • In Europe, a woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her. It was a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The drug was expensive to make, but the druggist was charging ten times what the drug cost him to make. He paid $200 for the radium and charged $2,000 for a small dose of the drug. The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get together about $ 1,000 which is half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said: "No, I discovered the drug and I'm going to make money from it." So Heinz got desperate and broke into the man's store to steal the drug-for his wife. Should the husband have done that? (Kohlberg, 1963, p. 19) • Do you agree with Heinz’s actions in stealing the drug for his wife. Provide detailed reasons for your answer.
Lawrence Kohlberg • Author of a three-stage theory on how moral reasoning develops
1. Preconventional Moral Reasoning • Characterized by the desire to avoid punishment or gain reward • Typically children under the age of 9
2. Conventional Moral Reasoning • Primary concern is to fit in and play the role of a good citizen • People have a strong desire to follow the rules and laws. • Typical of most adults
3. Postconventional Moral Reasoning • Characterized by references to universal ethical principles that represent the rights or obligations of all people • Most adults do not reach this level.
The Measurement of Moral Judgment • In a country in Europe, a poor man named Valjean could find no work, nor could his sister and brother. Without money, he stole food and medicine that they needed. He was captured and sentenced to prison for six years, he escaped from the prison and went to live in another part of the country under a new name. He saved money and slowly built up a big factory. He gave his workers the highest wages and used most of the profits to build a hospital for people who couldn’t afford good medical care. Twenty years had passed when a tailor recognized the factory owner as being Valjean, the escaped convict whom the police had been looking for back in his home town.
The Measurement of Moral Judgment • After reading the story answer the following: • Should the tailor report Valjean to the police. • Provide a response that reflects the thinking at each of Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development.
Social Development in Adolescence Module 5: Adolescence
Erik Erikson • Constructed an 8-stage theory of social development • Each stage has its own psychosocial, developmental task.
Social Development in Adolescence: Developing Identity Module 5: Adolescence
Identity • A strong, consistent sense of who and what a person is • Identity search includes the following characteristics: • Experimentation • Rebellion • “Self”-ishness • Optimism and energy
Social Development in Adolescence: Developing Intimacy Module 5: Adolescence
Intimacy • A close, sharing, emotional, and honest relationship with other people • To Erikson this is the primary task of early adulthood • Not necessarily one’s spouse or a sexual relationship
Social Development in Adolescence: Independence from Family Module 5: Adolescence
Three Key Developmental Issues Module 5: Adolescence
1. Continuity and Stages • How much of behavior is continuous and how much follows a more stage like development?
2. Stability and Change • Which developmental traits remain stable over time, and which change?
3. Nature and Nurture • How much of our behavior is due to nature and how much is due to nurture? • How do nature and nurture interact in development?