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Early Theorists

Early Theorists

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Early Theorists

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  1. Early Theorists • The early sociologists were primarily philosophers. • This somewhat abstract origin impacted the way sociology was viewed • For more information on the theorists go to http://www2.fmg.uva.nl/sociosite/topics/sociologists.html

  2. FOCUSED ON THE USE OF SOCIAL STATICS AND SOCIAL DYNAMICS CONSIDERED THE FATHER OF SOCIOLOGY COINED THE TERM ‘SOCIOLOGY’ USE OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD CALLED ‘POSITIVISM’ BY COMTE OBJECTIVITY VS. SUBJECTIVITY AUGUSTE COMTE

  3. WRITINGS THE BASIS FOR CONFLICT THEORY FOCUSED ON ECONOMICS ECONOMICS DETERMED ALL ASPECTS OF THE CULTURAL/SOCIAL STRUCTURES. KARL MARX

  4. Marx • BELIEVED THAT THERE WERE ONLY TWO GROUPS • HE REFERRED TO THESE GROUPS AS THE ‘ CAPITALISTS’ AND THE ‘PROLETARIAT’

  5. CAPITALISTS • Marx used this in reference to the owners who controlled ‘the means of production’ • Means of Production – refers to the lands, monies, equipment, etc.

  6. PROLETARIAT • CLASS OF LABORERS • LITTLE OR NO ACCESS TO THE MEANS OF PRODUCTION

  7. FIRST TO ACTUALLY CARRY OUT THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD USED VIGOROUS AND OBJECTIVE INVESTAGATION TECHNIQUES STATISTICAL ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION FOCUSED ON SOCIAL INTEGRATION(the degree to which an individual was tied to their social group) EMILE DURKHEIM

  8. AN INDIVIDUAL’S DEGREE OF SOCIAL INTEGRATION WAS SIGNIGICANT IN DETERMINING THE RATE AND OCCURANCE OF SUI CIDES THOSE WITH LITTLE TIES AND THOSE WITH STRONG TIES, MORE LIKELY TO COMMIT SUICIDE SUICIDES

  9. ALTRUISTIC • THE NORMS OF GROUP ADVOCATE SUICIDE. • SUTTEE[WIDOW BURNING] • NATIVE AMERICANS/ESKIMOS • KAMIKAZE PILOTS(WWII JAPANESE PILOTS) **http://www.relst.uiuc.edu/durkheim/Summaries/suicide.html

  10. EGOISTIC-FAILURE TO IDENTITY WITH THE SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS OF SOCIETY. ACCEPTS BLAME AND GUILT FOR ACT/BEHAVIOR EGOISTIC

  11. OF NORMLESSNESS, WHICH RESULTS IN SUICIDAL IDEATION OR BEHAVIOR FOUND THAT PROTESTANTS HAD HIGHER RATE OF SUICIDE IN COMPARISON TO CATHOLICS SINGLES, DIVORCEE’S, MEN HAD HIGHER RATES STILL USED TODAY ANOMIE

  12. ANOMIE • AN NO LONGER SHARE IN THE NORMS OF SOCIETY • DUE TO A RAPID CHANGE IN SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT • EXPERIENCE A SENSE OF NORMLESSNESS

  13. DURKHEIM IS A FUNCTIONALIST EXAMINED ISSUES AT THE MACROLEVEL QUANTITATIVE MODE OF RESEARCH HIS STUDY OF SUICIDE ASSISTED IN THE RESHAPING OF SOCIOLOGICL INQUIRY SUMMARY

  14. GERMAN SOCIOLOGIST USUALLY ASSOCIATED WITH THE THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF INTERACTIONISM STRESSED THE IMPORTANCE OF OBJECTIVE INVESTIGATION MAX WEBER(VAYBER)

  15. VERSTEHEN OBJECTIVELY EXAMINING SUBJECTS; DEVELOPING A SYMPATHETIC UNDERSTANDING OF ONE’S SUBJECT

  16. VERSTEHEN CONT’D: • TRY TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF WHY THEY ACT OR BEHAVE IN A CERTAIN MANNER • ALTHOUGH HE STRESSED THE IMPORTANCE OF GAINING AN INTERPRETATIVE UNDERSTANDING OF ONE’S SUBJECT, OBJECTIVITY IS THE ULTIMATE GOAL.

  17. THREE BASIC FUNCTIONS-MANIFEST/LATENT/LATENT DYSFUNCTIONS ALL THINGS HAVE INTENDED AND UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES MACROLEVEL ANALYSIS ROBERT MERTON:FUNCTIONALIST