Ethical Responsibilities in ResearchEthics in Steps • How are participants selected? • Is there any bias in the way the participants were selected? • Do the participants understand their participation is voluntary? • Do the participants understand they can withdrawal their participation at any time?
Ethical Responsibilities in ResearchEthics in Steps • What methods will be used on the participants? • Will participants be harmed by the methods? • Does the method involve deception? If so, can the deception be avoided or justly explained? • Will there be any short or long term side effects from the method used?
Ethical Responsibilities in ResearchEthics in Steps • How are the data analyzed? • Is the privacy of the participant secured? • How are the results reported? • Is the privacy of the participant secured? • How will the participants be informed of the results, if necessary?
Institutional Review Board • Scientific Validity • Determines if the experiment will yield useful data • Risk/Benefit Analysis • Adequate safety monitoring • Exclusion of populations at increased risk • Coding of Data • Adequately trained research personnel • Physical, Psychological, Social, Economic and Legal risks all evaluated • Severity, duration, and reversibility are also considered parts of the risk • Financial compensation is not considered a benefit • http://www.oprs.ucla.edu/human/documents/pdf/19.pdf
Institutional Review Board • Subject Recruitment • Special groups, such as children • Ethical exclusion of age, race, gender, etc • Informed Consent • All participants, or legal guardians of participants, must sign consent describing purpose of experiment • Include risks and benefits involved • Consent forms must be free of coercion • Participants may remove their consent at any time • http://www.oprs.ucla.edu/human/documents/pdf/19.pdf
Institutional Review Board • Privacy and Confidentiality • Alternatives to Participation • Drugs • Research Staff Qualifications • Deception and Debriefing • All subjects must be debriefed, especially if deception was used. Debriefing should offer explanations and help that can be sought out • http://www.oprs.ucla.edu/human/documents/pdf/19.pdf
Deception in Research • Passive Deception • Withholding information about the study • Active Deception • Deliberately misleading the participants
Deception in Research • Alternatives to Deception • Role playing • Simulation studies • When you can not avoid it • Make sure all risks are included in consent form • Potential results must be worth it • Must debrief participants as soon as possible
Integrity • Avoiding Fraud • Replication • repeat a research study to validate results • Peer Review • critical analysis of research by peers in the same area • Plagiarism • taking credit for another’s work or ideas
Examples • Stanford Prison • Little Albert • Milgram • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ngB8T5SKQTA
Ethics with Animals • Benefits of using animals • Same general structure • More control over past and experiment • When experiment calls for irreversible or harmful effects
Ethics with Animals • Animal rights then start to be factored in • Why do to them what we wouldn’t even do to ourselves? • All very controversial and one must decide for themselves