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IS312 : information systems theory and applications

IS312 : information systems theory and applications

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IS312 : information systems theory and applications

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  1. IS312: information systems theory and applications LECTURE 6: System Development Information Systems Department

  2. Outlines • What is SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT ? • Beginning of a System Development. • System Development “Methodology”. • System Development Life Cycle (SDLC). Information Systems Department

  3. What is SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT ? “System Development” refers to the process of : • Examining a business situation, • With the intent of improving it, • Through better procedures and methods. System Development is having two major component in it • System Analysis – Analysis of current system for Problems & Demerits in it and Additional requirements in new system. • System Design – Process of planning new system which will replace the old one. Information Systems Department

  4. Beginning of a system development System Development usually begins when a problem or opportunity is identified by Managers, it can be because of any of the followings: • New design idea to smoothen the process in the organization. • Evolving environmental changes such as Competition. • Adding new business or product line to present business. • Present system does not satisfy the users information needs. • Present system no longer efficiently and effectively meets the Goals of organization. • Excessive time spent in correcting errors. • Current Reports / Outputs not meting users decision making skills. • Escalating customer and vendor complaints. Information Systems Department

  5. System development “methodology” A system development methodology is a formalized, standardized, documented set of activities used to manage a system development project. It can be characterized as follows: • DIVISION OF PROJECT into the identifiable phases which can be managed without having any problem. • REVIEW OF DEVELOPMENT PROCESS by TOP Management on periodically by getting deliverables. • APPROVALS from all the participants of the Development (i.e. Users, Managers, Analyst and Auditors). • TESTING OF SYSTEM thoroughly prior to implementation to ensure that it meets user’s needs. • TRANNING of user who will operate the new system. • POST IMPLEMENTATION REVIEW for effectiveness and efficiency of new system Information Systems Department

  6. System development life cycle (SDLC) • How are Information Systems purchased or built? • The process which includes analyzing the system requirements to designing and implementing a new system is called the System Development Life Cycle (SDLC). Information Systems Department

  7. System development life cycle (SDLC) • SDLC is an organized set of activities that guides those involved through the design, development, and implementation of an information system. • The number and names of each SDLC phase may vary by author and software company, but they all are very similar. • The participants include technical staff, but also include non-technical business experts including end-users. Information Systems Department

  8. System Development Life Cycle In an organization System Development Object can be achieved by following steps: • Preliminary Investigation • Requirements analysis or system analysis • Design of System • Development of System • Implementation and Maintenance Information Systems Department

  9. Ongoing Activities • Project Management • Feasibility Assessment • Documentation • Information Gathering. Systems Development Life Cycle Information Systems Department

  10. 1. Preliminary Investigation Preliminary Investigation object can be achieved in following steps: • Request Clarification. • Feasibility study. • Estimating Costs and Benefits. • Request Approvals. • A brief study of the problem to determine whether the project should be pursued. • Usually launched by a formal project request. • Define the Problem. • Set scope (boundaries) of the problem. • Feasibility - measure of how suitable the development of a system will be to the organization. Information Systems Department

  11. Request clarification 1. Preliminary Investigation • Defining the Scope and Objective of Request: • As mentioned in the objectives of System development objective earlier. • Conducting the Investigation • This is nothing but the Collection of data / inputs by: • Reviewing internal documents (i.e Organizational Charts, operating procedures etc. • Conducting interviews of User • Identify viable option: • Analyst has to identify the viable option. Information Systems Department

  12. Feasibility (possibility) study 1. Preliminary Investigation Evaluation of alternative systems through cost and benefit analysis: • Technical Feasibility: Hardware and software availability, Technical Guarantee of Accuracy, Reliability, Easy to Access, Data security, technical capacity to hold data and future expansion. • Economical Feasibility: Evaluation of cost & Benefits expected. • Operational Feasibility: Finding views of workers, employees, customers & suppliers about the use of new system. • Schedule Feasibility: Estimation of time to take new system to become operational. • Legal feasibility: Testing whether new system will comply financial reporting requirements & Company’s contractual obligations. Information Systems Department

  13. Feasibility assessment report 1. Preliminary Investigation • Introduction – brief statement • Existing System • Background • Problems • Benefits of a New System • Feasibility of a New System • Operational • Schedule • Technical • Economic • Recommendation Information Systems Department

  14. Estimating cost & benefit 1. Preliminary Investigation COSTS: • Development Costs: This includes cost of testing, training, start up costs, salary to designers, acquisition cost of hardware & software. • Operation Costs: This includes operator salary, maintenance costs, etc. • Intangible Costs: Loss of employee productivity, self confidence etc. BENEFITS: • Tangible Benefits: • Increase in sales / Contribution / Profits • Decrease in investment, operating and processing cost. • Improved information availability, analysis, Management Decision skill • Intangible Benefits: • Increase in Goodwill / Improved Image of Business Information Systems Department

  15. Request approval 1. Preliminary Investigation Based on the Observation and Findings of the Analyst, selected requests are put up for the approval of management Information Systems Department

  16. 2. Requirement analysis and system analysis After the selection of a request for development analyst study in depththe Present and Proposed New System. This is the study of weakness & Problems in the present system and management requirements of new system. This phase of System Development is being completed in following step: • Collection of data and facts • Analysis of Present System • Analysis of Proposed system Information Systems Department

  17. 2. Requirement analysis and system analysis Collection of data & facts Every system is built to meets some set of needs and to assess these needs, the analyst often interact extensively with the people, who will be benefited from the system In order to determine the requirement of those peoples he can use following facts finding techniques: • Documents: This includes the Manuals, diagrams, forms, organizational charts etc. It should be ensured that all documents are accurate & up to date • Questionnaires: These are skillfully drafted group of standard question which can be given to all personal and can be analyze quickly. • Interviews: To get a complete picture of problems and opportunities. • Observation: Surprise Visit of users work palace to get a clear picture of user’s environment. Information Systems Department

  18. Analysis of present system 2. Requirement analysis and system analysis Detailed investigation of the present system involves collecting, organizing and evaluating facts about the present system and the environment in which it operates by studying following areas in depth: • Review of Historical Aspects of organization • Analyze Present inputs to the system • Review of all data file maintained irrespective of online or offline • Review methods, procedures & data communications • Analyze Present outputs of system • Review internal controls • Model the existing physical system and logical system • Undertake overall analysis of present system Information Systems Department

  19. Analysis of proposed system 2. Requirement analysis and system analysis After each functional area of present system is defined the purposed system specification must be defined. These specification will be based on the strength and weakness of present system. System Specification which should be in conformity with the Project Objective and Areas Covered should be following: • Output / Reports • Maintenance of Database • Data Inputting Process • Methods and Procedures to show the relationship between Input and Output • Work volume including peak period work volume Information Systems Department

  20. Questions .. Thank you for listening Information Systems Department