ICTP School on Radio Use for Information and Communication Technology The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics ICTP Trieste (Italy) 3 - 21 February 2003 Mobile Internet Professor Gennady Yanovsky, State University of Telecommunications St. Petersburg, Russia firstname.lastname@example.org
1. INTRODUCTION • Two concepts • Internet • Mobile • Internet – short history (fixed networks) • 1969 – ARPA • Noncommercial apps • and • Weak development (1970-1990) • Exponential grows after beginning of 90-th (some figures) • Plans for NGN
Mobile – short history • 70-th – first mobile networks (analog) – 1G • 90-th – digital mobile networks – (2G, GSM) • Beginning of current decade – (2,5G, EGSM) • Expectations – 3G (broadband access, HBRs in air interface) • Exponential grows (some figures)
Constant time-lag between fixed and mobile network applications Functionality 3 - 5 Years • Audio & Video broadband (DSL, CATV, etc.) Fixed networks are leading • Audio & Video broadband (UMTS) • Functionality • Speed • Cost • Audio & Video narrowband • Audio & Video narrowband (GPRS) • Pictures • Graphics • WWW • Pictures • Graphics • HSCSD • WAP • Text • SMS 1994 1997 1991 2000 Year 2003 Start of the World Wide Web
Penetration rates for different services (for the US market) Time to reach 50 mln customers 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 TV (15 years) millions of customers Internet (<5 years) Telephone (90 years) Cable TV (10 years) Radio (40 years) Computer Mobile Phone 1922 1950 1980 1995 Products have an accelerated market penetration.
Wireless Technologies Optical Fiber Twisted Pair Backbone Network Cable/Coax Power line Access Gateway Network Terminations Switching Transmission Access Network 2. Key forces for broadband accessPublic Network Principles Transmission
How long does it take to download 3 k (EM) 3 M (S/HRP) 300 M (1hV) Byte bit/s GSM 9,6 k 42 mins 3 days 2,5 secs PSTN 56 k 7 mins 12 hours 0,4 secs GPRS ISDN 115 k 128 k 0,2 secs 3,5 mins 6 hours Live Video codecs starting with 32 kbit/s UMTS ADSL 2 M 8 M 0,01 secs 12 secs 20 mins Cable WLAN 30 M 80 M 1 msec 1 sec 30 secs 3 msecs Fiber 800 G 30 µsecs 30 nsecs
Broadband to the customer via different techniques Satellites Sky Stations Two general types to access the informational Resources through Net GSM/GPRS/UMTS WLAN Optical fiber Twisted Pair xDSL/ Cable/Coax Backbone Networks Access Network
Fiber 250 Cellular Wireless* Coax Copper Twisted Pair *Capacity in Mbit/s/sqkm Technological limitations of different transmission media
3G - UMTS EDGE GPRS HSCSD CDMA GSM AMPS PCS VSAT WLAN PMP CDMA DECT Bluetooth TV Cellular WLL Satellite Wireless access technologies
Networks go broadband Satellite 1.2G 1G 100M 10M 1M 100K 10K 1K 250 Mbs Satellite 40M (Indoor)156M office MMAC (Outdoor)30M Cable modem human perception xDSL home UMTS ISDN GPRS 128K Analog modem 56K 33.6K Transmission Rate (b/s) Plan in Operation Source: SRI International 9.6K 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 Year
How long does it take to download Wirelesswired 3 k (EM) 3 M (S/HRP) 300 M (1hV) Byte bit/s GSM 9,6 k 42 mins 3 days 2,5 secs PSTN 56 k 7 mins 12 hours 0,4 secs GPRS ISDN 115 k 128 k 0,2 secs 3,5 mins 6 hours Live Video codecs starting with 32 kbit/s UMTS ADSL 2 M 8 M 0,01 secs 12 secs 20 mins Cable WLAN 30 M 80 M 1 msec 1 sec 30 secs 3 msecs Fiber 800 G 30 µsecs 30 nsecs
Subscriptions worldwide (millions) 1800 Mobile Fixed Mobile Internet Fixed Internet Mobile subscriptions 1600 1400 1200 1000 Mobile Internet subscriptions 800 600 400 200 0 1995 2000 2005 2010 Mobile access will dominate Source: Siemens
Mobile Messaging Market • SMSC/MMSC Supplier Revenues [€m], worldwide SMSC: Short Messaging Service Center MMSC: Multimedia Messaging Service Center Source: UBS Warburg, 01/02
Mobile Devices’ Market Source: Dataquest and UBS Warburg
Mobile and Internet Penetration in Western European Countries (YE 2000) 80% AUT ITA FIN NOR NL SPA SWE LUX CH 70% UK DK POR Mobile Penetration (in %) 60% GRE IRL GER FRA BEL 50% 40% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Source: Siemens (Fixed) Internet Penetration (in %)
3. Evolution of mobile technologies – general picture Deployment 2000-2006 Future Deployment Mobility Vehicular UMTS FDD 2.5G 2G Beyond 3G Large Area coverage up to 384 kbit/s GSM GPRS EDGE UMTS TDD MMAC Pedestrian BWA Pedestrian- portable up to 20Mbit/s Indoor up to 2 Mbit/s Bluetooth BRAN, Hyperaccess Portable Cordless DECT Wireless LAN Hyper an 2, IEEE 802.11a/b Fixed FWA (Fixed Wireless Access) 1 10 100 Information Rate (Mbit/s) 0.1
4. IP Mobility 4.1. GPRS General Packet Radio Services (GPRS) is a packet-based wireless communication service that provides data rates from 56 up to 114 Kbps and continuous connection to the Internet for mobile phone and computer users.
GPRS Main Features-1 1. GPRS is based on Global System for Mobile (GSM) communication and supports Internet Protocol Evolution of 2G to 3G for data transmission protocols
GPRS Main Features-2 2. GPRS will complement existing services such circuit-switched cellular phone connections and the Short Message Service (SMS). 3. GPRS will also complement Bluetooth, a standard for replacing wired connections between home devices with wireless radio connections. 4. In addition to the Internet Protocol (IP), GPRS supports X.25, a packet-based protocol. GPRS is an evolutionary step toward Enhanced Data GSM Environment (EDGE) and Universal Mobile Telephone Service (UMTS).
EDGE is a new radio interface that employs a combination of new coding schemes, new modulation, and the ability to dynamically choose the best possible combination of coding scheme and modulation, based on instantaneous error rates. Total maximum theoretical throughput of EDGE is 470Kbits/sec.
SGSN – Serving GPRS Support Node SGSN – Gateway GPRS Support Node GPRS Network (2)
MSC - Mobile Switching Center BSC – Base Station Controller SGSN – Serving GPRS Support Node SGSN – Gateway GPRS Support Node GPRS Architecture
GSM-based 2.5/3G network fragment referred to GPRS architecture - 1
GSM-based all-IP network fragment referred to UMTS architecture
GPRS Applications • General-purpose IP networking • WAP-based applications • Services (using mobile handheld devices as well as notebook computers): • Video conferences • Interactive communications with MM Web sites • Time frame • GPRS won't roll out instantaneously around the world. • Many GSM carriers start trials by the end of 2000 and continued in 2001/02, but only small portion of their provide total coverage areas. May be on 2003 users can roam on a widespread basis.
4.2 Mobile IPv6 • Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) is a protocol developed as a subset of Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) to support mobile connections. MIPv6 is an update of the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) Mobile IP standard (RFC 2002) designed to authenticate mobile devices (known as mobile nodes) using IPv6 addresses. • Traditional IP routing (IPv4): • IP addresses represent a topology. • Each node's IP address identifies the network link where the node is connected. • If a mobile device is disconnected from the own Internet and want to reconnect through a other (visiting) network, user have to configure the device with a new IP address • IP mobility is the add-on feature and the vast majority of IPv6 nodes do not support MoIP • MIPv6 allows a mobile node to maintain connections transparently while moving from one subnet to another. Each device is identified by its home address although it may be connecting to through another network. When connecting through a foreign network, a mobile device sends its location information to a home agent, which intercepts packets, intended for the device and tunnels them to the current location.
4.2.1. IPv4 and IPv6 (General view) IPv4 Header
0 31 0 31 Flow label (20) 1 V (4) Traffic class (8) 1 Hope limit (8) 2 Payload length (16) 2 Next header (8) 3 4 Source IP address Source IP address 5 Destination IP address 6 6 Destination IP address 10 IPv4 and IPv6 headers
4.2.2. Main advantages of IPv6 vs. IPv4 • Scalability(Extended address space [128 bits]) • Security (Authentication and security – Next headerfieldcapability) • Mobility (Destination and routing options - Next headerfieldcapability) • QoS (Differentiated services, incl. RT operations - Flow label fieldcapability)
HOME ELECTRONICS • PC • TV set • Micro oven • Set-top box • Video player • Bluetooth devices • PERSONAL DEVICES • Mobile phone • LT PC • PDA • MP3 MP • Web browser • Digital camera • VEHICLES • Car • Boat • Train • Airplane Need for IP access In the near future, many devices will require their own Internet address • AUTOMATION • Alarm systems • Heating • Electricity • Remote monitoring
ER ER ER ER 4.2.3_2. Mobile Internet Scenario for IPv6 (an update of RFC 2002)
4.4. Main Definitions of Mobile IP Binding The association/mapping between the mobile node's home address and a care-of address Care-of Address A temporary IP address associated with a mobile node while visiting a foreign network (see Appendix 2 for details) Correspondent Node A node that is communicating with the mobile node (for example, a WWW server) Home Address A static IP address assigned to the mobile node in the home network
Home Agent A router on the mobile node's home network with which the mobile node has registered its current care-of address. The mobile node's home address is associated with the home agent Mobile Node A terminal that can change its point of attachment in the IP network. A mobile node can be reached via its static home address
The benefits of Mobile IPv6 compared to Mobile IPv4 include: • • The huge address space of IPv6 makes Mobile IPv6 deployment more straightforward • IPv6 address autoconfiguration simplifies the care-of address assignment for the mobile node. It also eases the address management in a large network infrastructure • Optimized routing: Mobile IPv6 avoids so-called triangular routing •
Music Video Video Conference Video Telephone Mobile TV 5. Example: i-mode - Shift Strategy to 3G IMT 2000 (3G) Increasing bandwidth Java Colored LCD Open standards Games Pictures i-mode launch Home- page e-mail Feb. 1999 Fall, 1999 Winter, 1999 Fall, 2000 Spring, 2001 Source: NTT DoCoMo, Siemens
i-mode subscriber growth & percentage of DoCoMo subscribers (‘000 / %) 10000 30% 26,8% 23,4% 25% 8000 21,7% 8289 19,1% 7114 20% 6510 15,6% 6000 5603 13,3% 15% 4463 4000 3743 10% 2000 5% 0 0% Jan. 00 Feb. 00 Mar 00 Apr 00 Mai 00 Jun 00 i-mode information sites (absolute) 20.000 18.273 • # of Voluntary Sites • # of Official Sites 15.609 15.000 12.940 10.000 10.000 8.224 6.357 5.052 5.000 312 341 421 470 501 519 578 0 Jan 00 Feb 00 Mar 00 Apr 00 Mai 00 Jun 00 Jul 00 Example: i-mode – subscriber and information site evolution • Number of subscribers raised from 0 to 5.6 million within one year • Number of sites increased to 7.000 sites within one year Success in mobile data is driven by open access Source: Goldman Sachs, ING Barings, Communications International
Appendix 1 • Care-of address • Thecare-of address is a temporary IP address for a mobile node (mobile device) that enables message delivery when the device is connecting from somewhere other than its home network. • The care-of address identifies a mobile node's current point of attachment to the Internet and makes it possible to connect from a different location without changing the device's home address (permanent IP address) – like the postal system. • When a mobile device is away from its home network, it is assigned a care-of address. • Mobile IP registers the care-of address with a home agent, which resides on the home network. When a message for the mobile node is delivered to the home network, the home agent intercepts the message and tunnels it to the recipient at the care-of address.
Appendix 2 ABBREVIATIONS-1 2G Second Generation Mobile Telecommunications (including GSM and GPRS technologies)3G Third Generation Mobile Telecommunications (including WCDMA/UMTS technology)BG Border Gateway CN Correspondent Node CoA Care-of Address DHCPv6 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6 DNS Domain Name System ER Edge Router FA Foreign Agent GGSN Gateway GPRS Support NodeGPRS General Packet Radio ServiceGTP GPRS Tunneling Protocol
ABBREVIATIONS-2 HA Home Agent HLR Home Location Register ICMP(v6) Internet Control Message Protocol (for IPv6)IETFInternet Engineering Task Force IPsec IP securityIPv4 Internet Protocol, version 4 IPv6 Internet Protocol, version 6 ISP Internet Service Provider MN Mobile Node MT Mobile Terminal PLMN Public Land Mobile NetworkRFC Request For Comments (a specification by IETF)
ABBREVIATIONS-3 SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications System WAP Wireless Application Protocol WCDMA Wideband Code Division Multiple Access WLAN Wireless LAN WWW World Wide Web