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Biological perspective

Biological perspective. Historical and Cultural context. • Describe and evaluate the cultural context and development, the conceptual framework , the methodology , and the application of the biomedical model.

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Biological perspective

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  1. Biological perspective

  2. Historical and Cultural context • • Describe and evaluate the cultural context and development, the conceptual framework, the methodology, and the application of the biomedicalmodel

  3. What Historical and cultural conditions gave rise to the biological perspective? • Dualism • Darwin • Cultural acceptance of scientific method • Proven effectiveness of Drug intervention • The development of genetics and scanning studies

  4. Historical and cultural conditions that gave rise to the biological perspective • Consider this: • People trust science--scientifically prove to make your whites whiter” • A whole new branch called evolutionary psychology • Is psychology really just a subset of biology? • The 90’s Decade of the brain • Even IB Psychology making Biological a core area!

  5. EEG

  6. MRI

  7. PET •

  8. Migrane

  9. Contribution of the biological perspective to the scientific study of behaviour, and its current standing • biological correlates of behaviour • genetic contributions to explanations of behaviour • effects of hormonal change on behaviour • experimental testing of hypotheses • use of both quantitative and qualitative research

  10. Identify the Key concepts • how physiological concepts such as the endocrine system, central nervous system affect behaviour • neurotransmitters—excitatory, inhibitory • the brain—localization of function • bodily rhythms (we will cover next semester)

  11. Resting potential

  12. Action potential

  13. Normal Synapse

  14. Effect of MDMA at Synapse • MDMA can cause the release of the neurotransmitter called serotonin. • MDMA can block the reuptake of serotonin by the synaptic terminal that releases it. • MDMA can deplete the amount of serotonin in the brain. • MDMA can cause an indirect decrease in the amount of the neurotransmitter called dopamine.

  15. Monkey on E

  16. Your brain on cocaine

  17. Cocaine acts by blocking the reuptake of the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin in

  18. All that is psychological is first physiological Examples ADHD Aggression Schizophrenia Identify the assumptions

  19. All behaviour has a cause- deterministic Examples Inherited traits biological factors (such as genes and hormones) influencing behaviour (for example, innate tendency to imprint) Where is free will? Identify the assumptions

  20. Animals may be studied as a means of understanding human behaviour. Examples Lobotomy ? Split brain ? Testosterone? Oxymotin ? Identify the assumptions

  21. Human genes have evolved over millions of years to adapt behavior to the environment. Therefore, much behaviour has a genetic basis. Examples The smile Mating behaviors Flight or fight Tend and befriend Identify the assumptions

  22. Psychology should investigate the brain, nervous system, endocrine system, neurochemistry, and genes. Examples Split brain Drug research Lobotomy Brain damage Identify the assumptions

  23. Split brain • Sperry et al • Vogel and Bogen (1961)

  24. anterior cerebral commissurotomy

  25. Hemispheric specialization

  26. chimeric figures • Focus on the dot • Point: pick a woman • Talk: pick a man

  27. Evaluation of assumptions comparison with other perspectives to explain strengths and limitations empirical studies that challenge or support Identify the assumptions

  28. Evaluation of assumptions Comparison: Aggression Gender roles Language development Identify the assumptions

  29. use of drugs, surgical procedures Can you name any? Depression? Schizophrenia? Two key surgical procedures Theoretical explanation of Behavior

  30. physiological impairment, Can you name any? such as strokes or Alzheimer’s disease Stroke Head injuries Theoretical explanation of Behavior

  31. physiological factors involved in psychological processes Emotions: Describe which parts of the brain and which neuro-chemicals are involved anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa Theoretical explanation of Behavior

  32. Eating disorders • Physiological • Cultural • Emotional • Female/male differences (1 to 7) • Feel fat vs are fat • Weight vs shape

  33. "But it probably involves a transition from psychosocial to biomedical mechanisms."

  34. influence of hormones Starting before birth Male? Female? Others? Theoretical explanation of Behavior

  35. Evaluation of assumptions • use of alternative perspectives as a possible evaluative strategy

  36. Methods • correlational studies • double-blind trials • experiments • interviews • case studies • questionnaires

  37. Strengths and limitations of methods • comparison of invasive and non-invasive techniques • reliability and validity

  38. Ethics and controversies of research • use of human and non-human animals for research

  39. Effectiveness of the perspective in explaining psychological and/or social questions • comparison with other perspectives on questions such as aggression, gender differences or stress • application of genetic research and its ethical implications

  40. Strengths • The approach is very scientific.• • Practical applications have been extremely effective.•

  41. Weakness • Reductionist - it explains thoughts and behaviours in terms of the actions of neurons and biochemicals. This may ignore other more suitable levels of explanation and the interaction of causal factors.•

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