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Chapter 20

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Chapter 20

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  1. Chapter 20 Gender Factors and Exercise

  2. Key Concepts

  3. amenorrhea • athletic menstrual cycle irregularities (AMI) • dysmenorrhea • disordered eating • female athlete triad • oligomenorrhea • relaxin

  4. Review Questions

  5. High-intensity exercise can cause hormonal disturbances in women. What are some of the physical problems that may result? • Delayed menarche • Cessation of menstruation • Infertility • Osteoporosis

  6. What are some of the differences between men and women for the following physiological parameters? • Height: • men are taller • Weight: • men weigh more • Body composition: • men have less body fat and more fat-free weight • VO2 max: • women tend to have lower VO2 max values and anaerobic capabilities • Strength: • men tend to be stronger than women • Strength per unit of muscle mass: • no difference

  7. What effect does exercise have on the menstrual cycle? Intense training programs can result in amenorrhea and other athletic menstrual cycle irregularities (AMI).

  8. What effect does the menstrual cycle have on athletic performance? There is no compelling scientific evidence that the menstrual cycle has a general effect on athletic performance. Individual athletes may or may not be affected.

  9. Which sports are associated with the female athlete triad? • Sports that emphasize low body weight: gymnastics, figure skating, diving, cheerleading. • Sports that use weight categories: horse racing, martial arts, wrestling, rowing.

  10. What signs of disordered eating should coaches and trainers look for? Early signs of disordered eating include excessive weight loss and avoidance of food, use of laxatives and diuretics, and vomiting.

  11. According to the meta-analysis by Lokey et al., what is a safe exercise program for pregnant women? Any program performed for about 43 minutes a day, three times a week, with a heart rate of no more than 144 beats per minute

  12. How can the stigma against weight training for women be counteracted? • Female role models in the weight room • Coeducational coaching staffs • Coeducational weight rooms • Personnel attuned to verbal and nonverbal cues so that they don’t communicate lesser expectations to female athletes than to male athletes

  13. What precautions should a pregnant woman take during strength training? • After the first trimester she should be cautious when performing heavy multijoint free weight exercise because of the increase in relaxin, which softens tendons and ligaments. • Pay attention to dress and environment to avoid becoming overheated.

  14. What can coaches do to compensate for a woman’s narrow shoulder width in overhead lifts? Pay attention to hand spacing and to the carrying angle at the elbow

  15. What can coaches suggest if they are concerned about the effects of a woman’s Q-angle on weight lifting? Tell female weight trainers to squat with a toe forward stance

  16. Useful Websites

  17. Gender Differences in Endurance Performance and Training The Physician and Sports Medicine: Female Athlete Triad Life Matters Medical Guidelines About Pregnancy and Exercise Pregnancy and Exercise—Position Stand The Physician and Sports Medicine: Strength Training for Females