Curriculum & Instruction • Curriculum • Instruction • Curriculum Development • Influences on Curriculum • The Hidden Curriculum
Curriculum • Curriculum can be defined as • a plan concerned with the purpose • and content of what is to be learned. • The curriculum anticipates the results of instruction. • Curricula should not merely reside in textbooks as content outlines. • learning includes more than knowledge • learning includes skills, attitudes, and behaviors
Instruction • Instruction can be defined as the process of teaching, • delivering the curriculum, • and providing learning environments for students. • Teaching so named can mean • instructing, informing, training, • brainwashing, conditioning, indoctrinating, • and teaching - - properly understood.
Curriculum & Instruction • Curriculum can be thought of as “doing the right thing.” • Instruction can be thought of as “doing the thing right.”
Curriculum Development • Curriculum development is • a planning process • a way of assessing needs, • identifying goals and objectives, • and meeting the cultural, social, and personal requirements that the curriculum is to serve. • Curriculum planning should precede instructional preparation.
The Need for a Theory Base • Who decides what should be taught and how it is taught? • Dynamic leadership and clear goals are essential for effective curriculum change. • What are the aims of education? • On what foundations should curriculum be built? • There are a host of external and internal influences on the school curriculum….
External Influences: • federal government (disabilities, titular $) • the courts (church-state issues, civil rights) • state legislatures (ISIP/IGAP, content stds) • boards of education (procedures, book choice, courses) • the vocal right (Moral Majority, creationists) • the vocal left (AIDS awareness, Z.P.G., P.P.I.) • professional organizations (NSTA, AAPT )
Internal Influences: • School Improvement Plan • Teacher Philosophy • Knowledge Development? • Process Development? • Intellectual Skills • Physical Dexterity • Attitude Development?
The “Hidden” Curriculum • The intended curriculum is… • what we say it is. • The actual curriculum is… • what remains after everything else has been forgotten.