Ergonomics Mazie Fairchild 11-18-05
Ergonomics • What is it? • Ergonomics contributes to the design of tasks, jobs, products and environments in order to make them compatible with the needs, abilities, and limitations of people.
Objective of Ergonomic Design • To ensure that humans and technology work in complete harmony, with the equipment and tasks aligned to human characteristics. • The job should “fit the person” in all respects without compromising human capabilities and limitations. • Improving efficiency, productivity, safety and health in the work setting.
Components of Ergonomics • Anatomy: Improving tools and equipment to meet all of the various sizes and body types. Understanding the muscles, limbs and posture.
Components of Ergonomic Design cont. • WorkPhysiology: Energy requirements of the body and standards for acceptable physical work rate, work load and for nutritional requirements. • Environmental Physiology:Analyzes the impact of physical working conditions such as thermal, noise, vibration and lighting.
Components of Ergonomic Design cont. • Psychology: Human information processing and decision making capabilities including sensory processes, perception, long/short term memory and decision making.
2 Types of Ergonomic Risks • Personal • Occupational
Personal Risk Factors • Age • Stress • Level of Fitness • Medications • Gender • Alcohol, Tobacco & Caffeine Use • Nutrition • Hobbies
Occupational Risk Factors • Repetition • Sustained Exertions • Force • Awkward Postures • Localized Mechanical Pressures • Vibration Exposures • Temperature Extremes • Glare/Lighting Issues
Reducing the Risk of Injury • Educate employees about proper techniques when necessary • Use assisted devices or team lifting when necessary • Computer ergonomics: proper seating, distance from screen, position of head/neck, arms and legs • Reduce the risk factors if applicable
More Ergonomic Principles • All work activities should permit the worker to adopt several different, but equally healthy and safe postures • Where muscle force has to be exerted it should be done by the largest appropriate muscle group available • Work activities should be performed with the joints at about mid-point of their range of movement, particularly the head, neck and trunk
POSTURE • P: Promote blood Circulation • O: Organize your desk space • S: Sit in a slightly reclined position between 100-110 degrees • T: Typing technique must be correct • U: Understand your work pattern • R: Relax your arms, shoulders, neck, back • E: Ensure that your feel rest firmly upon the floor
References • www.nata.org • www.ergonomics.org • www.lib.utexas.edu/ergonomics • www.osha.gov • www.lhup.edu/yingram/currentissues/ergonomics • www.alexandertechnique.com