Social Interaction in Everyday Life Status Role The Social Construction of Reality Ethnomethodology Reality Building: Class and Culture Interactions in Everyday Life: Two Applications
Status • Status- a social position that an individual occupies. • Every status is part of our social identity and helps define our relationship to others. It helps us know whom we are dealing with. • A status set- consists of all the statuses a person holds at a given time. • A teenage girl is a daughter to her parents, a sister to her brother, a friend to members of her social circle, and a goalie to others on her soccer team. • Over a lifetime, individuals gain and lose dozens of statuses.
Ascribed status- a social position a person receives at birth or assumes involuntarily later in life. Such as a Cuban, a teenager, or a widower. Ascribed statuses are matters about which people have little or no choice. • Achieved status- a social position a person assumes voluntarily that reflects personal ability and effort. • Achieved statuses in the U.S. include honors students, Olympic athlete, spouse, computer programmer and thief. • A master status- a status that has special importance for social identity, often shaping a person’s entire life.
Role • Role- the behavior expected of someone who holds a particular status. • People hold a status and perform a role. Holding a role of a student means one will attend classes, complete assignments, and devote time to academic status. • Role set- a mix of the multiple roles we hold. Role set identifies a number of roles attached to a single status. • Role Conflict- a conflict between roles corresponding to two or more statuses.
Women face role conflict when they work outside the home as well as fulfill the role as parent. This is both physically and emotionally draining. • Role Strain- a tension between roles connected to a single status.
The Social Construction of Reality • Describes the process by which people creatively shape reality through social interaction.
Ethnomethodology • Ethnomethodology is the study of the way people make sense of their everyday surroundings. • Ethnomethodology explores the process of making sense of social encounters. • Dramaturgical Analysis: “The presentation of the Self” • Dramaturgical Analysis- the study of social interaction in terms of theatrical performance. • Dramaturgical analysis offers a fresh look at the concepts of status and role. A status is like a part in a play, and a role serves as a script, supplying dialogue and action for the characters.
Presentation of self- an individuals efforts to create specific impressions in the minds of others. • As we present ourselves in everyday situations, we convey information—consciously and unconsciously—to others. A person’s performance includes dress (costume), objects carried along (props), and tone of voice and particular gestures (manner). In addition people craft their performance according to the setting (stage). People design settings such as home or office to bring about a desired reaction.
Nonverbal communication- communication using body movemntes, gestures, and facial expressions rather than speech. • Personal space- refers to the surrounding area over which a person makes some claim to privacy. • Women more than men sustain eye contact, • Staring- when men stare at women they are claiming sexual dominance. • Touching conveys intimacy and caring. Apart from a close relationship, touching is something men do to women.
Embarrassment is an ever-present danger because, first, all performances typically contain some deception. And secondly, most performances involve many elements that, in a thoughtless moment, can share the intended impression. • We have all helped someone “save face.” Such as using a mild laughter or overlooking some slip up. • Embarrassment provokes discomfort not only for the actor but for everyone.
Interactions in Everyday Life: Two Applications • Language- is the thread that joins members of a society in the symbolic web of culture. • Language defines men and women in at least three ways; power, value, and attention.
Humor- is an important part of everyday life. • Humor functions everywhere because it works as a safety valve that vents potentially disruptive sentiments with little harm. • Humor can be used as an escape from a conventional world that is not totally to our liking. • People throughout the world find different situation funny, humor is an element of culture.