Iowa Finance Authority2008 Housing Iowa ConferenceSeptember 2008 Gary Hinzman- APPA President American Probation and Parole Association
Quote from Charlie Brown • “There’s no heavier burden than great potential”
Margaret Mead: • “Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world; indeed it is the only thing that ever has.” Margaret Meade
To Have Great Successes We Must Know Why Programs Fail • A poor perception of an uninformed public • Failure in Design • Poor Understanding of target population • Failure of Implementation • Failure to Manage Power Dynamics • Failure to Question Basic Assumptions • Policy Makers Inadvertently Create Failure
To Have Great Successes We Must Know Why Programs Work • A good perception with an informed public • Success in Design • Understanding of target population • Understanding Implementation • Manage Power Dynamics • Review & Question Basic Assumptions • Work with Policy Makers to Create Success
Martin Niemoeller(1892-1984) • “In Germany they came first for the Communists, and I didn’t speak up because I wasn’t a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn’t speak up because I wasn’t a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn’t speak up because I wasn’t a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn’t speak up because I was a Protestant. Then they came for me, and by that time no one was left to speak up.
Inadequate Transitionfor Sex Offenders • > the risks to public safety • > incidence of psychiatric symptoms • > relapse of substance abuse • > in hospitalization & suicide • > in homelessness • > in failure to register (on the lamb) • > the number of re-arrests
Precursors to Offender RiskRecent Study by Georgia Parole • Recently disrupted home environment • Unstable job or loss of employment • Disconnected from family group • Fails to show for treatment classes or appointments • Renews substance or alcohol abuse
Sex Offender Residency Laws • Aggravate Scarce Housing options for sex offenders • Force them out of metro areas & farther away from social support, employment, & social services that are known to aid offenders in successful community re-entry ( Minnesota DOC, 2003)
Myths About Sex Offenders • All sex offenders re-offend • US DOJ found 5.3% in three year study • Treatment does not work • Cognitive-behavioral treatment reduces sex offender recidivism by 40% • The concept of “stranger danger” • Most sexual perpetrators well known to victim • All sex offenders are “predators”.
Sexual Predator • The term "sexual predator" should be reserved for sex offenders who have engaged in a long term pattern of sexually deviant behavior, who are assessed to be at high risk to re-offend, who have assaulted strangers or non-relatives, who have used violence, weapons, or caused injuries to victims, who have had multiple victims and/or arrests, or who have committed abduction, kidnapping, false imprisonment, or sexually motivated murder or attempted murder.
Recent Studies • Florida-housing restrictions increase isolation, create financial & emotional stress, and led to decreased stability. (2005) • Colorado found that molesters who re-offend while under supervision did not live closer than non-recidivists to schools or day care centers (2004) • Residence restrictions create a shortage of housing options for sex offenders and force them to move to rural areas where they are likely to become increasingly isolated with few employment opportunities, a lack of social support, and limited availability of social services and mental health treatment (Minnesota Department of Corrections, 2003)
Sex Offenders • Sex offenders are a diverse population • Recidivism rates are relatively low, but vary considerably • Risk can be differentiated reliably using validated, sex offender-specific risk assessment tools • Some interventions seem to “work,” some do not, and the impact of some remains unknown • Strategies pairing surveillance/monitoring with rehabilitative services have better outcomes • Decision making informed by risk and needs yields better outcomes and maximizes resources
Current HUD Rules & Iowa Law • Mandatory HUD rules prohibits only those with life-time sex registration. • Permissive local rules can prohibit any offender further. • Landlords use websites to restrict further. • Iowa’s 2000 foot law restricts sex offender housing options.
Federal Law • 24 CFR 960.204(4) Persons subject to sex offender registration requirement. The PHA must establish standards that prohibit admission to the PHA's public housing program if any member of the household is subject to a lifetime registration requirement under a State sex offender registration program. In the screening of applicants, the PHA must perform necessary criminal history background checks in the State where the housing is located and in other States where household members are known to have resided. (See part 5, subpart J of this title for provisions concerning access to sex offender registration records.)
Current HUD Rules & Iowa Law • Prohibits those convicted of a sex offense from finding suitable housing • Keeps them from living with their families • Leads them to live in less desirable areas • Limits quality of treatment services & supervision available to them • Restricts access to valuealbe services to other family members
Tilling the SoilFor Effective Reentry • Developing collaborations • Between prison & community corrections • Need about 180 days • Establishing Advisory Boards • Provides long range planning • Setting up Citizen Advisory Boards • Helps monitor offender progress • Using Circles of Accountability & Support • Each One – Reach One
Addressing Housing Needs • Supportive Housing Grants through HUD • Building housing units • Supportive services/rent • Developing low-income housing • Home Funds • Low income Tax Credits via IRS section 42 • Shelter Plus Care • Other (private $$$)
Power Sharing • You always gain strength by sharing power. • You share in success. • You share in responsibility. • You share the blame. • You never want to set yourself up on the pinnacle.
Sex Offender Collaborations • Linn County Sex Offender Task Force; comprising local law enforcement officials, DCI officials, DCS, Federal Probation, Juvenile Probation, DHS, US Marshals, Prosecutors • Johnson County Sexual Assault Intervention Team; comprising DCS, RVAP (Rape Victim Advocacy Program), local law enforcement officials, SANE (Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner), Prosecutors • Discuss community notification issues, sex crime investigations, supervision concerns, and sex offender management strategies
New Collaborations • Mental Health Re-Entry Program • Mental Health Pre-Trial Diversion • Treatment Court In Linn • Treatment Court in Johnson County • Collaborative Treatment in new Mental Health Facility • Collaborative Programming – Low Income Housing Project
Team Building is An Age Old Problem • “We trained hard – but it seemed that every time we were beginning to form up into teams, we would be reorganized.” Petronius Arbiter, 65 A.D.