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THE IMPACT OF NEGLECT AND ABUSE ON CHILDREN’S LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT. Power Point Outline**. I. Introduction and General Facts II. Abuse of Persons with Disabilities III. Behavioral and Language Characteristics IV. Implications for Assessment and Intervention.

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  2. Power Point Outline** • I. Introduction and General Facts • II. Abuse of Persons with Disabilities • III. Behavioral and Language Characteristics • IV. Implications for Assessment and Intervention

  3. I. INTRODUCTION AND GENERAL BACKGROUND FACTS** • Children may experience abuse and/or neglect (AN) • The highest rate of child abuse is experienced by children between birth and 3 years of age

  4. Safe Horizon 2018:** • In the U.S., someone reports child abuse every 10 seconds • 4 children die each day because of abuse and neglect

  5. Sheehan Stanford Child Neurology: • Abused babies-- about 25% die • Up to 50% survive with significant neurological deficits

  6. Neglect…** Is the failure to provide for a child’s basic needs It can be emotional, educational, or physical

  7. Children who experience physical neglect…** • Often experience this because their parents are unable to provide what they need—they are poor • May be inappropriately left at home alone

  8. These physically neglected children…** Often have trouble doing well in school-- basic needs are not met Hungry, cold, lice Difficulty concentrating

  9. Recent national statistics indicate that in terms of perpetrators by relationship to the victim:** 78.5% are parents 6.5% are other relatives (total of 85% are relatives) 0.4% are foster parents 0.7% are child daycare providers 4.1% are unmarried partners of the child’s parent 0.3% are friends or neighbors

  10. Children who have experienced severe emotional neglect…** May be lethargic and apathetic May demonstrate learned helplessness May have cognitive problems, including difficulty with impulse control and problem-solving skills

  11. II. ABUSE OF PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES** (http://www.irvingstudies.com/child_abuse_survivor_monument/Disabled.htm) Reports: physical and sexual abuse of individuals with disabilities runs 3-4 times higher than abuse in the general population Disabled girls are especially vulnerable targets; often, family members abuse them

  12. Fogle, 2019: Women with language impairment (LI) are more likely to report sexual abuse/assault than women without LI

  13. If a child with a disability reports** abuse, s/he often not seen as credible —can’t describe details clearly SLPs sometimes called to assist in court cases SLPs ensures that interviews are conducted at the child’s appropriate cognitive and linguistic levels

  14. Some research suggests that… • Mothers of babies with craniofacial anomalies such as cleft palate may be less attached to and nurturing of their infants • Decreased attachment ↑ risk of AN; babies with craniofacial problems vulnerable to abuse

  15. This is one reason…** • That we need to provide medical care for these babies as early as possible

  16. Children with disabilities…** • Put a lot more stress on their caregivers • When caregivers are stressed and have no respite, they are more likely to neglect and abuse their children

  17. Caregivers may…** Not see the light at end of tunnel like parents of TD children Be stressed--typical childhood experiences not available Parents of TD children uncomfortable-- no invitations Special needs parents & children isolated

  18. III. BEHAVIORAL AND LANGUAGE CHARACTERISTICS** They are often very quiet Difficulties with expressive language • They have lesser conversational skills than their peers • They may be less likely than peers to discuss information or volunteer

  19. **These children often do more poorly in school • They underperform academically • They have more behavior problems

  20. Specific difficulties with pragmatics may include: ↓descriptive utterances Lang used to get things done with little social affect Poor conversational skills overall—shorter conversations Inability to discuss feelings

  21. Lack ability to take perspective of a conversational partner Demonstrate alexithymia-- absence of words for emotions

  22. Other specific language issues may include:** Shorter, less complex utterances Fewer decontextualized utterances; more talk about the here and now Auditory and reading comprehension problems

  23. Mothers who neglect or abuse babies:** May punish normal risk-taking “adventurous” behavior May not interact May be unresponsive when babies initiate, so babies learn to be passive

  24. Shaken baby syndrome may occur** We must stress to caregivers that they should NEVER shake a baby This causes lifetime cognitive and linguistic damage

  25. Sheehan Stanford Neurology: Problem: when caregiver done shaking, s/he usually slams baby hard against a surface—wall, table….  traumatic brain injury

  26. IV. IMPLICATIONS FOR ASSESSMENT AND INTERVENTION** We need to work as part of a multidisciplinary team This team often includes a social worker and a psychologist We are mandated to document and report what we see and hear In the schools, we would tell the principal

  27. In assessment, we especially need to focus on evaluating:** Overall expressive language skills Pragmatics skills Narrative skills Vocabulary

  28. Intervention should involve…** • Encouraging verbal expression, especially description • Providing a warm, nurturing environment with clear rules and boundaries ↑child’s ability to accurately describe and appropriately express emotions(e.g., use your words, not hitting or kicking)

  29. Intervention may especially need to involve…** • Playing! • We can provide appropriate dolls/action figures, art supplies, etc. • As ch is playing or drawing, describe his actions or drawings

  30. ** • AN children are more likely than peers to engage in behavior that elicits negative reactions from those around them • ↑ ability to communicate socially

  31. We can work on self esteem by using ideas such as:** Star of the Week Me Collage Problem Wall Trip to the Future

  32. Remember that…** • Culturally and linguistically diverse families may especially need direct instruction about American child abuse laws • I think that we should do this before we refer the family to CPS (Child Protective Services)

  33. Many refugee parents…** Have undergone great trauma May have post-traumatic stress disorder, may neglect, abuse children

  34. V. SUPPORTING CAREGIVERS** Remember that in the U.S., most people do not have help and support from extended families like they do in other countries Frequently caregivers are isolated with their children, and they can become extremely stressed

  35. Lorber, M.F., & Egeland, B. Parenting and Infant Difficulty. Child Development, 82, (6) 267 high-risk mother-ch dyads studied Conduct problems (CPs) at 5-6 years old predicted by negative parenting Angry, hostile mother-toddler interactions at 24-42 mos. very predictive of CPs in school

  36. It can be very stressful…** When a baby cries nonstop for hours and you are alone with no help—you can’t leave

  37. Sheehan Stanford Neurology:** • They always ask caregivers: • When you just can’t take it any more, who can you call to relieve you?

  38. **1. Ask caregivers about their own needs, and attempt to help them meet these needs or guide to them to professionals who can help them (e.g., parenting classes, food stamp programs) 2. Provide key information about overall child development. Research shows that some caregivers abuse their children because the caregivers’ expectations are too high.

  39. ** One friend told me about her great grandson—at 3 years of age, expected to change his own diapers—was hit when he did not In winter, allowed to go barefoot and get splinters—no coat

  40. Sheehan: Parents who abuse--↓ ability to tolerate infant crying Evidence: abused babies don’t actually cry more than other babies Parents THINK they do— unrealistic expectations of baby behavior

  41. **3. Point out what caregivers are already doing right. • 4. Provide support groups of other caregivers whose ch have similar challenges • 5. Use DVDs that model good parenting skills

  42. **6. Teach caregivers how to use language/words to discipline instead of using physical means such as slapping. For example, caregivers can be taught how to apply choices and consequences. 7. Model language stimulation strategies such as extensions that caregivers can easily fit into their daily routines.

  43. Power Point Outline** • I. Introduction and General Facts • II. Abuse of the Disabled • III. Behavioral and Language Characteristics • IV. Implications for Assessment and Intervention

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