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IMS9043 IT in Organisations

IMS9043 IT in Organisations

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IMS9043 IT in Organisations

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  1. IMS9043 IT in Organisations Week 1Organisations and IT

  2. Objectives for this lecture • Understand the concept of aligning IT with organisational objectives.

  3. Organisations and Processes LECTURER: Barry Atkinson Room S4.01 barry.atkinson@infotech.monash.edu.au Consult: Mondays 5:00 to 6:00pm before lecture Other times by appointment TUTOR: Katherine Knight Katherine.Knight@infotech.monash.edu.au

  4. Unit website • http://www.sims.monash.edu.au/subjects/ims9043/

  5. Assessment • Examination (50%) Individual assignment: • Research report (25%) – Weeks 6 & 7 Individual assignment: • Business Case (25%) – Weeks 11 & 12

  6. Lectures • Inescapable truths: • Lectures identify and introduce the topics you need to understand – they do not supply all you need to know about the topic. • Learning comes from your own efforts at reading, questioning, comprehending and doing. • Assessment outcomes are usually directly proportional to your effort.

  7. Tutorials • Wk 1 No tutorial • Wk 2-5 Research report writing; System failure; • Wk 6-7 Assignment Presentations • Wk 8-10 Business case writing; IT applications for organizations • Wk 11-12 Assignment Presentations Attendance is expected every week and is mandatory for presentations by all students • Research topics approved in week 3 & 8

  8. Readings • Prescribed text: Turban, E., McLean, E. & Wetherbe, J. (4th Ed.), 2004. Information Technology for Management: Transforming Organizations in the Digital Economy. New York: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN: 0-471-17898-5 • Recommended texts Turban, Rainer& Potter,2003. Introduction to Information Technology. John Wiley

  9. Topics • Aligning IT with organisational objectives • IT and contemporary businesses • Management of IT in business today • Impact of IT on business • Relating IT to the rest of the business • Assessing IT’s contribution • It as a strategic business tool • Using IT for competitive business advantage

  10. Issues • Issues: • eCommerce • Outsourcing • Security • Business re-engineering • System failure • Building a business case

  11. Business Organisations • What is an organisation? • a stable, formal social structure • takes resources from the environment and processes them to produce outputs • What is a business? • an organisation which applies processes, information and knowledge to produce a service or product

  12. Organisations • levels – heirarchy of responsibility/ power • functional structure – sales, manufacture, accounting, human resources etc. • specialisation – skills and information • division of labour

  13. Organisations – purpose, objectives • purpose • why is a formal social structure required? • what does the social structure allow? • objectives • what outcome from the collective activities? • profit? • good corporate citizen? • altruism?

  14. Rapid and inexpensive communication and transportation modes increase the magnitude of international trade. Market Pressures • Global Economy & Strong Competition.  from Turban, McLean & Wetherbe

  15. Changing Nature of the Workforce.  The workforce is becoming more diversified, with more females, single parents, minorities, and handicapped persons working in all types of positions. Sophisticated Customers.  Consumer sophistication & expectations increase as customers become more knowledgeable about the availability and quality of products and services. Market Pressures (cont.) from Turban, McLean & Wetherbe

  16. Technological Innovation & Obsolescence. Some of today’s state-of-the-art products may be obsolete tomorrow. Competitors might move to better technology. Thus, technology accelerates the competitive forces. Information Overload.  The amount of information available on the Internet more than doubles every year. The management of information is critical. Technology Pressures from Turban, McLean & Wetherbe

  17. Social Responsibility.  Issues range from the environment to political correctness. Government Regulations. Regulation issues involve health, safety, environmental control, and equal opportunity. Nanny state. Government Deregulation.Deregulation can be a blessing to one company but a curse to another company. Ethical Issues. Business ethics relates to standards of right and wrong in ‘new’ business practices. Societal Pressures from Turban, McLean & Wetherbe

  18. Other trends – the Digital Economy • Business environment based on digital technologies digital communications networks internet, intranets, private networks computers software other information technologies

  19. Other trends – the Information Revolution • Business activity characterised as the application of knowledge/information in the course of creating a business product knowledge workers knowledge work

  20. Organizations’ Major Responses • Strategic systems for competitive advantage • Continuous improvement efforts • Business process reengineering (BPR) • Business alliances • Electronic commerce • Best industry practice – BPR • Downsizing – flatten the heirarchy • Standardisation – processes and training • Outsourcing from Turban, McLean & Wetherbe

  21. Organizations – strategic systems • provide organizations with strategies to increase their market share, better negotiate with suppliers, or stop competitors • strategy- art of war • disposing resources • impose on competitor the place, time and conditions of fight • elements of strategic thinking: • timeframe - when • level of analysis – broad idea, specific project • orientation – direction - goal • justification - costs and benefits

  22. Organizations – continuous improvement • Continuous Improvement Efforts aim to improve a company’s productivity and quality. • Examples include: • Improved productivity Managing enterprise data • Just-in-time (JIT) Innovation and creativity • Total quality management  Change management • Knowledge management Customer service

  23. Information Systems • Information systems (IS) collect, process, store, analyze, and disseminate information for a specific purpose. • Information Systems are comprised of; • inputs (data, instructions) • outputs (reports, calculations) • feedbackmechanisms that controls the operation • an environment that it works within from Turban, McLean & Wetherbe

  24. Computer-Based Information System • A computer-based information system (CBIS) is an information system that uses computer technology to perform some or all of its intended tasks. • Can provide: • high speed, high volume computations • fast, accurate, inexpensive communications • store huge amounts of information, easy to access, in a small space • access worldwide information • automate business process • application anywhere – wireless communications • less expensive than manual from Turban, McLean & Wetherbe

  25. Information Technology (IT) • Information technology (IT) the individual components of information technology that can be applied.

  26. Information Technology infrastructure • IT infrastructure • the hardwarea set of devices such as processor, monitor, keyboard, and printer. • the softwarea set of programs that enable the hardware to process data. • the databasesa collection of related files, tables, relations, and so on, that stores data. • the communications network elements is a connecting system that permits the sharing of resources between computers • the peopleare those individuals who work with the system or use its output. • the data • the proceduresare the set of instructions about how to combine the above components. from Turban, McLean & Wetherbe

  27. Critical Infrastructure Areas (1) network design and management (2) processing architecture (3) desktop environment (4) operations support strategy

  28. Providing IT to the Business environment • key terms = “reach” and “range” • “reach” refers to the locations and people the infrastructure can connect • “range” refers to the business activities that can be automatically completed across each level of Reach

  29. “Reach” and “Range” • range will depend on a variety of factors including • technical capabilities • agreements on formats (protocols and data structures etc.) • levels of site permission • levels of system permission

  30. “Reach” and “Range” • “reach” for many firms is now global - the internet provides a natural extension of the internal network • “range” can vary widely - in an ascending hierarchy it may for instance be possible to • send messages (email) • access some stored information • perform simple transactions • perform complex transactions • access all stored information

  31. Organization Security • the reach and range of the infrastructure have been critical factors in raising the profile of security issues • the longer the reach, the more numerous are the potential sources for trouble • the wider the range of actions permitted, the more difficult it becomes to design adequate security systems • (ie - different levels of range require different enabling mechanisms - passwords, update permissions, data encryption protections etc.)

  32. IT Management • What does an Information Technology manager manage? • people • staff • senior managers • users, consultants, vendors • technology infrastructure (equipment , networks, and operating software) • money • projects • capital investment programs • strategic plans and objectives • new systems directions • new technology directions

  33. The role of the CIO • align” IT directions with those of the business • apply IT to gain competitive advantage • support an internet-commerce initiative • build integrated system and technology structures • prepare and apply corporate information management principles • reengineer business processes • transform the organization using IT

  34. References • Turban, McLean & Wetherbe (2004). Information Technology and Management. Wiley. • Frenzel, C.W. & Frenzel, J.C. (2004) Management of Information Technology. 4thed. Thomson Course Technology . • Dr. Doug Hamilton • Mr. Andrew Barnden