220 likes | 516 Vues
Prominent Religious Philosophies in Early Colonial America. Puritanism. Began in England in the 16 th century. King Henry VII formed the Church of England in 1534. controlled by Englishmen free of the pope and Roman Catholicism Henry sought to create religious independence religious unity.
E N D
Puritanism • Began in England in the 16th century. • King Henry VII formed the Church of England in 1534. • controlled by Englishmen • free of the pope and Roman Catholicism • Henry sought to create religious independence • religious unity
Puritanism • There were some radical reformers whose disputes marked the Reformation. • Puritans & Pilgrims who settled in New England were extreme reformers. • They believed that the English church break away from Rome had not gone far enough. • They wanted to purify the English church even more.
Puritanism • Hoped to restore the worship to “pure and unspotted” • Hoped to recover what William Bradford described as “Christianity in its primitive order, libertie, and bewtie.”
Puritanism • Contrary to popular belief, the early Puritans were not generally long-faced reformers. • They were intelligent, self-controlled, plainly-dressed citizens who advocated simplicity and democracy. • Only after they were harassed by rulers in England did they develop more extremely rigid views of behavior.
Puritans & Pilgrims opposed: • the pageantry of the church of England • the rituals that remained similar to those of Roman Catholicism • the required forms of prayer • the choir bells and the organ music • the robes • the veneration of images and relics • decorated vestments • the stained glass windows
Puritanism • They were opposed not only to the doctrines and practices, but also to the organization. • English churches were controlled by • English monarchs • Hierarchy of priests, bishops, & abbots • They felt that the organization robbed people of their right to practice true religion.
Puritanism was similar to Judaism, an idea which truly appealed to devout New Englanders. • Puritans believed they were a chosen people as were the Israelites. • Like the OT Jews, they were sure they worshipped the one true God. • They had both fled from oppression and had suffered from their religious beliefs. • The migration to the New World was seen and compared to Moses leading the Israelites from slavery into Egypt.
Puritan Religious Beliefs Puritans believed in predestination. One cannot choose salvation, for that is the privilege of God alone. All features of salvation are determined by God’s sovereignty, including who will be saved and those who will receive God’s irresistible grace.
CovenantTheology • Covenant of Works • Covenant God made with Adam • In return for Adam’s “good works” and obedience = Eternal Paradise • Once Adam broke the covenant of works, all his descendants were to live in a world of labor and misery and then die and suffer damnation in Hell. • Original Sin.
Covenant of Grace • After Adam broke the Covenant of Works, God made a new covenant with Abraham. • In this agreement, a special few are saved and allowed to go to Heaven. These special few were the Puritans. • Certainty of this covenant lead to the great unity of the Puritans and Separatists.
Puritanism • Devout Pilgrims & Puritans used the Bible as a guide to religion, civil gov’t., business and commerce. • Bible gave them rules for courtship, marriage, and warfare. • What to do at births, how to cure the sick, curse the wicked, bury the dead. • Furnished rules how to dress and table etiquette.
Puritanism • Unity was so strong, it became a central and vital aspect of every part of their lives. • They worked and played together • They ate from the same bowls and slept together. • This solid unity was especially evident at religious services, where they joined to listen to sermons.
Contributions of Puritanism • The key contribution was faith; a faith so strong it withstood all types of persecution. • This faith laid the groundwork for the establishment of independence and freedom • It also contributed to the concept of preaching. • Preaching is today a tradition whose force is undeniable in America today.
Sermons were the foundation of two artistic achievements. • Sermons were the most popular literary form of the time. The written expression of the sermon became New England’s greatest contribution to American literature. • The dominating interest in sermons is also visible in the design of the New England churches, known as “meetinghouses.”
Devout Puritans believed that a sermon was: “the chariot on which salvation came riding into the hearts of men.”
Calvinism • Doctrine originated by John Calvin in 1536 • Made popular in Institutes of the Christian Religion
Calvinism • Calvinism • Total depravity • Unconditional election (Predestination) • Limited atonement • Irresistible grace • Perseverance of the saints
Deism • Man is by nature good. • Society has corrupted him. • There is a supreme power which is benevolent • A sovereign power must be worshipped. • The good disposition of man constitutes the principal part of his worship to that power.
Deism • All crimes/vices must be punished by that power • There are rewards & punishments after death. • God is the great “clock-winder” of the universe. • He sets the world in motion, then stepped back and will not interfere in the affairs of man.
Humanism • Man’s best service to God is to serve man. • Believed that the importance of this present life is sharply contrasted with the Puritan’s and Calvinist’s view that man must struggle continually to live a good life in order to be happy in the next life.
Humanism • Ben Franklin • Practiced humanism • Believed that church attendance was hypocritical and detrimental to the spiritual growth of man. • His debt to God was paid through his advice given to his fellow man in an effort to better society.