专业英文写作(On Professional Writings Using English) 邓治东(Jyh-tong Teng)中原大学机械系教授兼国际事务中心资深顾问
1.引言(Introduction) 2.英文的标点符号(Punctuations) 3.专业的传统表述(Mechanical Conventions) 4.文章的起承转合(Transitions) 5.专业论文的写作(Technical Article Writing) 6.文章的常见错误(Common Errors) 7.结论(Conclusions) 大纲(Outline)
1.引言(Introduction) • 世界约85%之专业出版物系以英语撰写 • 专业英文系以特定方式撰写 • 非英语体系作者常因格式与方式不符或英语欠通顺而被退件 • 若能突破英语撰写上的障碍要在专业出版物上发表文章并非难事
2.英文的标点符号(Punctuations) • Summarized from Judith S. Vanalstyne, Professional and Technical Writing: Communication in Technology and Science, Sixth Edition, Prentice-Hall International, Inc., 2004 2-1Apostrophe(所有格符号) • for the plural of letters, numbers, symbols, and cited words • Your r’s look like your n’s. You use too many and’s. • the 2000’s (2000s)
2-2 Colon (冒号) • for a formal salutation Dear Mr. Wang: Gentlemen: • for introducing a phrase or clause which explains or reinforces a proceeding sentence or clause The position sounds attractive: high salary, moderate amount of work, and close to home.
for a clause which contains an anticipatory expression (the following, as follows, thus, these) and directs attention to a series of explanatory words, phrases, or clauses. The requirements for the master degree are as follows: 1.twenty-four units of class work, 2.a master thesis, and 3.no more than four years of study.
for expression ratios, for separating hours and minutes, and for indicating other relationships 5:1 signal : noise A:B 10:20 P.M. 12:50-55 (Vol. 12, pp. 50-55)
2-3Comma (逗点) • for compound and compound-complex sentence • a.for separating independent clauses joined by a coordinatingconjunction Nearly everyone has heard of love at first sight, but I fell in love at first dance. • b. after an introductory dependent clause When Peter was ready to write, his pen ran out of the ink.
c. after a conjunctive adverb introducing a coordinate clause The system is easy to use; however, we suggest that you read the directions carefully.
On Coordinate (对等) and Subordinate (从属) Clauses • 1. Coordinate Clauses • 1.a Independent (独立) clause, andindependent clause. • , but • , for • , nor • , or • , so • , yet
1.b Independent clause; independent clause. • 1.c Independent clause ; consequently, independent clause. • ; further, • ; hence, • ; however,
; indeed, • ; in fact, • ; likewise, • ; moreover, • ; nevertheless, • ; rather, • ; then, • ; therefore, • ; thus,
2. Subordinate Clauses • After dependent (从属) clause, independent clause. • Although • As • Because • Before • If • Since • Until • When • While
for separating items in a series These instructions will teach you how to create, edit, or proofread a file. • Note: The comma is often omitted in company names: Jones, Smith and Woods • for separating a series of adjectives or adverbs not connected by a conjunction The computer blinked haphazardly, noisily.
in a date to separate the day and year October 8, 2000 the December 1, 2000, deadline • Note: Do not use a comma in the military or British form: 8 April 2000 • for grouping numbers into units of three in separating thousands, millions, and so forth: 7,890 85,386 8,476,235 • for the salutation of an informal letter or the complimentary close of most letter: Dear Joseph, Sincerely yours, Cordially,
for expressions that introduce direct quotations The President said, “We must fight back the financial blockages set up by the competing businesses.”
2-4 Dash (破折号) • for setting off emphatic and abrupt parenthetical expressions The idea of this program – it has been tested thoroughly – is to simplify spelling correction. • for marking sharp turns in thought He was an arrogant man – with little to be arrogant about.
2-5 Ellipsis (three spaced periods) (省略号) • for indicating any omission in quoted material Martin stressed, “The technical writer … must master punctuation.” (The words as well as professional writer have been omitted.) •for indicating the ellipsis (four periods) at the end of a sentence The consultant stressed, “Write carefully ….” (The words and edit endlessly have been omitted.)
2-6 Parentheses (括号、括号) • for enclosing an abruptly introduced qualification or definition within a sentence You may place your program diskette in drive A and your storage diskette (the one with your file on it) in drive B. • for enclosing figures or letters to enumerate points To use this program (a) insert your DOS diskette in drive A, (b) turn on your computer, (c) type in the date, and (d) press the Enter key.
2-7 Period (句点) • for an outline (概述、轮廓) I. Analysis I.1 Assumptions I.2 Theoretical Development I.2.1 Conservation Laws I.2.2 Constitutive Equations I.3 Perturbation Method
2.8 Question Mark (问号) • at the end for an interrogative question Do you own a personal computer? • Note: Do not use one after an indirect question. He asked me if I owned a personal computer.
2-9 Quotation Marks (引号) • for setting off direct speech and material quoted from other sources Dr. Jack Chen writes, "Before …. Most doctors,” he points out, “forbade … to the refrigerators.”
2-10 Semicolon (分号) • for used in compound and complex sentences • for used between coordinate clauses not connected by a conjunction The new system will use low-powered transmitters;it is called cellular radio. • for before a conjunctive adverb including a coordinate clause The system is easy to use; however, we suggest that you read the directions carefully.
for before a coordinating conjunction introducing a long or loosely related clause Niobium, which is … an alloy,is a metallic element that … without losing strength; and it is widely available …. • in a series for separating elements containing commas • J. Chen, member of the board; P. Wang, president;C. Chang, committee chairperson; and I attended the conference.
3. 专业的传统表述(Mechanical Conventions) • Summarized from Professional and Technical Writing Strategies by Judith S. VanAlstyne, Sixth Edition, Prentice-Hall International, Inc., 2004 • 3-1 Abbreviations (简写字) • Explain the first time you use it He has worked for the Department of Transportation(DOT) and the Office of Mental Health(OMH).
Omit most internal and terminal punctuation in abbreviations BTU (Btu) lb psi ft DNA rpm • Use internal and external punctuation if the abbreviation forms another words in. A.M. gal. No. • Use uppercase (capital) letters for acronyms and degree scales NASA VHF OEM oC oF K R Use lowercase (small) letters for units of measure: gph cc rpm mph bps
Write the plural in the same form as the singular 20 in. 47 lb 5 hr 30 gph 10 cc 3-2 Capitalization (大写字) • Capitalize all proper nouns (专有名词) Jack Wang Ace Electronic Company Professor David Chu National Basketball Association (NBA) Introduction to Communication Monday November the Civil War a Honda Civic • Capitalize adjectives derived from proper nouns: Elizabethan Victorian Reaganomics
Capitalize words like street, avenue, corporation, and college when they accompany a proper name Powell StreetSeventy-Second Street Ace Company, Inc.Harvard University Chabot Community College • Capital north, east, midwest, near east, and so on when the worddenotes a specific location the Souththe Midwestthe Near East 105 NorthwestSecond Street • Capitalize brand names Kleenex tissues Scotch tape
3-3 Hyphenation (连字符) • Use between some compound names for family relationship Hyphenated: brother-in-law’s company One word: my stepfather’s portfolio Two words: my half brother • Use hyphen in compound numbers from twenty-one to ninety-nine and in fractions twenty-five cartons fifty-eight years three-fourths of the book one-tenth meter
• Use hyphen after the prefixes all-, ex-, self-, and before the suffix -elect: all-American ex-wife self-contained president-elect • Use hyphen in some compound nouns kilowatt-hour foot-pound • Use in compound adjectives when the letter precedes the word it modifies alternating-current (ac) motor closed-circuit television high-pressure system easy-to-build model
Use between a number and a unit of measure when they modify a noun 6-inch ruler 12-volt charge a 3-week-old prescription 3-4 Italics (斜字号) • Use italics (underline in handwritten or typed material) to indicate the names of books, newspapers, and other complete works published separately the book Introduction to Boxing the magazine Time the movie Gone With The Wind
Use to indicate the names of ships and planes the H.M.S. (His or [Her] Majesty’s Ship) Ark Royal the U.S.S. (United State Ship) Independence • Use to indicate words, symbols used as words, and foreign words which are not in general English usage • Note: Do not italicize foreign expressions which are established as part of the English language, such as: a priori (既定的) bona fide (真诚的) ad hoc (特别的) etc. status quo (现状) per annum (每年的，按年计的) pro rate (按比例分配)
3-5 Numbers (数字) • Write out single digit numbers from zero through nine when the number modifies a noun five disks two printers • Use numerals for zero through nine when the number modifies a unit of measure, time, dates, pages, chapters, sections, percentages, money, proportions, tables, and figures 2 inches 3-second delay 5 gph 2:30 A.M. 9 years old July 5, 2001 page 5 (p. 5)pages 5-15 (pp. 5-15) Chapter 7 Section 3 Figure 5 (Fig. 5) Table 3 2 percent $75 1:5 a 5% decrease $0.05 (5 cents) 5 to 3 odds
Use numerals for decimals and fractions 0.5 5.56 2/5 (two fifths) or 0.4 ¼ (a quarter) or 0.25 3/32 (three thirty seconds) in. 5 1/2 kg (five and a half kilograms) • Use numerals for any number greater than nine 10 psi (pounds per square inch) 85 employees 45 lb 234,567 people • Write out numbers which are approximations a half cup of tea three quarters of a mile away three sevenths of the energy approximately five times as often
Place a hyphen after a number of a unit of measure when the unit modifies a noun 5-inch handle 7-inch-diameter sphere 20 1/2-kg can 25-gal. capacity • When many numbers, both smaller than and greater than nine, are used in the same section of writing, use numerals Buy 5 sheets of 8-inch by 11 1/2-inch paper, 12 sheets of 8-inch by 20-inch paper, and 5 manila envelopes. • Note: If none of the numbers are greater than nine, write them all out.
• When one number appears immediately after another as a part of the same phrase, avoid confusion by writing out the shorter number nine50-watt bulbs two6-inch wrenches thirteen20-kilogram packages twenty-five3,000-component circuit boards • Place a comma in numbers in the thousands 1,500 15,678 234,567 • Write numbers in the millions in one of two ways 2,500,000 or 2.5 (two and a half) millions 17,000,000 or 17 millions $1,600,000 or $1.6 million
Do not begin a sentence with a numeral Fifteen inches of rain fell. 15 inches of rain fell. (Wrong!) 3-6 Symbols (符号) • Use symbols sparingly • Define the symbols when they first appear in an article • use nomenclature (符号表) to collect all symbols in a table 3-7 Spelling (拼字) Use a dictionary when in doubt about the proper and preferred spelling of a word.
4.文章的起承转合(Transitions) • 4-1 For this study, the curved microchannel was constructed by standard etching processes; the curved microchannel was etched on a silicon wafer with a 4-inch diameter and a 550 m thickness. The processes included SiO2 deposition, photoresist coating, developing, baking, etc. Subsequently, an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) process accounting for the crystal directional characteristics was used to finish the fabrication of the curved microchannel structure. (to be continued)
To quantify the surface roughness of the curved microchannel, a profilometer (made by Mitaka, Model NH-3N) was used to measure the surface profile of the curved microchannel. It was concluded from the measured results that the peak-valley roughness of the silicon microchannel was lower than 20 nm. Since the minimum dimension of all length scales measured in this study was 40 µm, the effect of the roughness of the scale of 20 nm (or 0.02 µm) was deemed to be negligible.
4-2It is observed that, over a range of channel sizes and flow rates, as seen in Figs. 4 and 5, the numerically simulated results provide a good prediction of the experimental data for the six types (see Table 1) of curved microchannels used in this study, with an average discrepancy of8%. Consequently, for the incompressible and isothermal laminar flow, and as far as the pressure drop is concerned, the fluid behavior of curved microchannels still follows the predicted values based on classical Navier-Stokes equations when the Dh value is on the order of 70 μm or larger. In addition, the results obtained from the measured pressure drop
(continued) • In addition, the results obtained from the measured pressure drop show that the geometrical channel aspect ratio has a significant influence on the pressure drop, and an increased channel curvature radius results in higher pressure loss.
4-3However,it can be seen from Fig. 7 that, for Types C4 to C6 curved microchannels which have aspect ratios in the range of 0.2 to 0.1, experimental data and empirically obtained curves on the relationship between friction factor and Reynolds number are shown to have a different pattern, and most of the experimentally-determined data of friction factors are above the predicted curves estimated by Eq. (12). It should be noted that the smaller the value of the aspect ratio, the more deviation the configuration from the square shape.
(continued) • Since Eq. (12) was based on data obtained for a square channel, the friction factors of curved microchannels with relatively low values of aspect ratio (0.2 to 0.1) lead to a relatively large discrepancy between the experimentally-obtained data in this study and the predicted values using Eq. (12). Hence,the comparison implies that the cross-sectional shape of the curved microchannel has a substantial effect on the friction factor for low values of the aspect ratio.
4-4Another factor which may have an impact on the friction factors in curved microchannels is the effects of the electrical double layer (EDL) near a solid-liquid interface of the rectangular microchannel, as indicated by Ren et al.  and Ko and Gau . It can be seen from  that EDL plays a minor role for curved microchannels with a minimum dimension on the order of 40 µm, which is the lowest dimension used in this study. In addition, the Navier-Stokes equations used in this study do not account for the effects resulting from EDL, and in this study, the results obtained from simulations are in good agreement with the experimentally-obtained data. As a result, the
(continued) • As a result, the effects of EDL in this study are deemed to be minor for the curved microchannels for the lowest dimension size of 40 µm or higher.
4-5Moreover, under the condition of the same aspect ratio, it can also be seen in Fig. 8 that the predicted curve estimated by Eq. (13) for the relationship between the friction factor ratio and De number is in good agreement with those obtained from the experimental data for the Type C1 (with an aspect ratio of unity) curved microchannel in the range where De < 60. However, discrepancy among friction factor ratios of experimental data obtained for the Type C1 curved microchannel and the numerical results suggested by Wang and Liu  is observed to become larger as the De number becomes larger than 60. This can be explained by the fact that the Eq. (13) presented by Wang and Liu  was
(continued) • This can be explained by the fact that the Eq. (13) presented by Wang and Liu  was obtained from a numerical simulation of a curved microchannel with a curvature ratio of 5×10-6, and the relatively small value of the curvature ratio of the curved microchannel led to a moderate increase of the friction factor as a result of the minimal centrifugal force presented. Hence,the comparison of the friction factor ratio between the experimental data for Type C1 and numerical calculated curve determined by Eq. (13) shows that, by increasing the channel curvature radius while
(continued) • Hence,the comparison of the friction factor ratio between the experimental data for Type C1 and numerical calculated curve determined by Eq. (13) shows that, by increasing the channel curvature radius while keeping the aspect ratio the same, leads to a mild increase in the Poiseuille number. It should be noted that the Po number for Type C1 to C3 varies approximately linearly with an increasing De number, as shown in Fig. 8.
4-6In addition, as shown in Fig. 10, it is observed that, for the range of Re numbers (Re = 10 ~ 450) and the low range of aspect ratio values ( = 0.1 ~ 0.2) used in this study, the pressure drops obtained analytically from the conventional Poiseuille flow theory (that is, Eq. (8)) for straight channels are in good agreement with those obtained experimentally for Types C4 to C6 curved microchannels. Furthermore, a linear relationship between the pressure drop and the Reynolds number is observed.
5.专业论文的写作(Technical Article Writing) • 5-1 Use present tense for discussing results. (以现在式进行结果讨论) • e.g., Experimental results are reported for the mass transfer in pipe flow for an aqueous 4% sodium chloride solution under Newtonian and non-Newtonian conditions.