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World War II and the Post-War Period

World War II and the Post-War Period

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World War II and the Post-War Period

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  1. World War II and the Post-War Period Lecture 1 Labor During the War

  2. Administrative • Reading reminder – All the rest of the reading on this topic by the next class

  3. Review • Dramatic Changes in labor and employment law in the 1920s and 1930s • Dramatic split in the American Federation of Labor and the creation of the CIO • Rapid organization of the mass production industries, especially cars, tires and steel and the role of sit-down strikes • Employers’ continued resistance to rights of employees and to unions

  4. Today • Wartime Economy • Labor Movement During the War • Women and Minorities in the War-time Labor Force

  5. I. Wartime Economy • Extremely full employment • Typical war‑time inflationary forces – Why? • Accordingly, for the first time in a decade, workers have jobs, money and bargaining power, but are frustrated by the absence of goods to buy

  6. II. Labor Movement During the War • Competition continues between A.F.L. and C.I.O. • Both federations supported the war effort conscientiously

  7. III. Women and Minorities in the War-time Labor Force • Desperate need for workers led to dramatic increase of women working • Many African-Americans promoted to do jobs previously reserved for whites • In both cases, issue of equal pay gave rise to conflict

  8. Race Issues • 1941 Randolph threatened march on Washington if the government refused to do something about discrimination • Roosevelt responded with Executive Order creating the Fair Employment Practices Committee • Overall, sex and race barriers in employment decreased during the war

  9. Next Time • War-time Public Policy • War-time industrial conflict

  10. World War II and the Post-War Period Lecture 2 Industrial Conflict and Public Policy

  11. Administrative • Begin reading on 1960s for Wednesday • First reading

  12. Review • Wartime Economy • Unemployment virtually disappeared • Controlled economy • Labor Movement During the War • AFL and CIO both strongly supported war effort • War Labor Board resolved disputes

  13. Today • Industrial Conflict during the war • Labor law in the war and post-war periods

  14. I. Industrial Conflict During the War • Unions and employers had agreed to avoid industrial conflict • Disputes to be resolved by War Labor Board • Unions thrived under the War Labor Board

  15. Conflict • 1941 had been a very high strike year • Relatively few strikes by AFL or CIO unions during the war • Exception was the United Mine Workers

  16. Conflict • 1946 post-war strike wave • On several occasions President Truman intervened • Gradually the strike wave ebbed after 1947

  17. II. Labor Law in the War and Post-War Periods • United Mine Workers strikes during the war caused anti-union backlash • Response was Smith-Connally Act (1943)

  18. Smith-Connally • Empowered president to seize companies where disputes imperiled the war effort • Criminal penalties for those who instigated or promoted strikes

  19. Taft-Hartley Act • Response to the strike wave of 1946 • Largely written by the National Association of Manufacturers • Passed over Truman’s veto – “Slave Labor Act”

  20. Taft-Hartley • Outlawed the closed shop • Allowed states to prohibit the union shop • Reintroduced injunctions in labor disputes in a variety of circumstances • Banned secondary strikes and secondary boycotts • Required unions to file anti-Communist affidavits for officers

  21. Taft-Hartley • Denied unionization rights to low level managers • Authorized 80-day injunctions against strikes imperiling national safety and welfare • Introduced concept of union unfair labor practices

  22. Taft-Hartley • Did not destroy collective bargaining where it existed • Did halt the momentum unions had established during the war

  23. Next Time • The Landrum-Griffin Act • The post-war Anti-Communist scare • The merger of the AFL and CIO

  24. World War II and the Post-War Period Lecture 3 The Post-War Period

  25. Administrative • Reading reminder • Memphis Sanitation strike for next class • Teacher unionism and Cesar Chavez for following class • Quiz reminder • Essay reminder

  26. Review • Issues of race and gender during the war • Relative absence of strikes during the war • Public Policy Issues • Smith-Connally Act (1943) • Taft-Hartley Act (1947)

  27. Today • The post-war Anti-Communist scare • The merger of the AFL and CIO • The Landrum-Griffin Act

  28. I. The Communist Scare • Immediate post-war period one of rabid anti-Communism • Anti-Communist campaign in Hollywood • Senator Joseph McCarthy

  29. Anti-Communism • Labor movement emerged from World War II with Communist leadership of several major CIO unions • Communists were also influential factions in a number of other major unions

  30. Anti-Communism • Overall, no one more Conservative than leadership of the trade union movement • 1949 CIO expelled 11 unions with 20% of total CIO affiliated membership • In some cases (e.g. electrical products) CIO chartered new unions to replace the expelled ones • Other unions made Communists ineligible for office

  31. II. The Merger • By the mid-1950s, AFL affiliates had 9 million members and CIO affiliates had 6 million • Reduced conflict over principles and personalities • New leaders George Meany and Walter Reuther

  32. Merger • June 1953 negotiated “No-Raiding” pact • February 1955 agreed to full merger at the end of the year • All existing unions to be preserved • No raiding • AFL to provide both President and Secretary-Treasurer

  33. Merger • Agreed on series of Campaigns • Much of the labor movement remained outside • Railway brotherhoods • UMW • ILWU • Teamsters (expelled for corruption)

  34. III. The Landrum-Griffin Act Labor Management Reporting and Disclosure Act • Product of investigations of McClellan Committee • Evidence of rigged elections, misuse of funds, embezzlement and sweetheart contracts

  35. Act • Assumed public interest in democratic and proper union behavior • Assumed that unions would be unable to assure such behavior themselves • Purposes of the Act • Protect against improper union behavior • Protect against union-management arrangements denying members proper representation • Plug loopholes in Taft-Hartley

  36. Act • Bill of Rights for union members • Regulation of union elections • Discipline of Members • Regulation of Trusteeships • Regulation of Financial Conflicts of Interest

  37. Next Time • Begin discussion of the 1960s