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Professionals in Health

Professionals in Health

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Professionals in Health

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  1. Professionals in Health Health career roles and educational requirements

  2. Physicians • Involved with the treatment and prevention of human disease. Primary role is diagnosing human disease and formulating a treatment plan.

  3. Physician Classifications • MD Doctor of Medicine- general practitioners or specialists. Focus: medicine and/or surgical treatments • DO Doctor of Osteopathy- most are general practitioners. Focus: musculoskeletal system. • Both require 4 yrs premed, 4 yrs med, 3 yrs residency.

  4. Physician Specialties • Family Physician- involved with care of the total patient. Handles most illnesses. • General Practitioner- similar to family practitioner. Title usually for DO’s. • Neurologists- Treats disorders of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord)

  5. Physician Specialists continued • Gynecologists- Health care and treatment of reproductive system of women. • Obstetricians- work with women throughout pregnancy, delivery, and care after delivery.

  6. Physician Specialists continued • Pathologists- study characteristics, causes and progression of disease. Order and perform lab tests, autopsies, run blood banks, etc. • Emergency Medicine- Treat acute illnesses and emergencies

  7. Physician Specialists continued • Allergists- treat conditions and illnesses caused by allergies or related to immune system • Otolaryngologists- Ear, nose and throat (ENT) and the treatment of diseases involving the ear, nose or throat. Perform related surgeries.

  8. Physician Specialists continued • Surgeons- operates to treat disease, repair injuries or correct deformities, and to improve general health • Psychiatrists- Assist patient in the recovery of mental illness

  9. Physician Specialists continued • Radiologists- diagnose and treat illness by use of X ray and radioactive materials. • Pediatricians- care for children from birth through adolescence.

  10. Physician Specialists continued • Ophthalmologists- treat disease and injuries of the eye. Prescribe corrective lenses and perform surgery. • Dermatologists-Treat infections, growths and injury to the skin.

  11. Physician Specialists continued • Anesthesiologists- Use drugs and gases to render patients unconscious during surgery. Assist patients with pain management. • Cardiologists- Treat heart disease

  12. Dental • Dentists- Diagnose and treat problems with teeth and tissues of the mouth. Either DDS (Doctor of Dental Surgery) or DMD (Doctor of Medical Dentistry)

  13. Dentists- Education and Specialties • Education: 4 yrs predental, 4 yrs dental • General Practitioners- handle wide variety of dental needs • Orthodontists- straighten teeth

  14. Dental Specialties continued • Oral Maxillofacial Surgeons- operate on mouth and jaws • Pediatric Dentists- Dentists for children • Periodontists- Treat gums

  15. Dental Specialists continued • Prosthodontists- make artificial teeth or dentures • Endodontists- perform root canals

  16. Dental Hygienists • Provide preventive dental care. Teach patients to have good oral hygiene. Scale and polish teeth, explain relationship between diet, smoking and oral health. • Education- 2 yrs

  17. Dental Assistants • Works with the dentist while the dentist is examining and treating the patient. • Make patients comfortable in the chair • Prepare them for treatment • Obtain dental records • Hand dentists the instruments and materials

  18. Dental Assistants continued • Make impressions • Take radiographs • Give oral health instruction • Prepare instruments for sterilization • Use suction to keep mouth clean during exams and treatments • Education- 1 year

  19. Dental Technologist • Makes dental prosthetics as prescribed by a dentist • Such as: Crowns and Bridges, Orthodontic appliances, Full Dentures and Partial Dentures and Ceramics

  20. Registered Nurses • Care for sick and injured • Help people stay well • Concerned with the whole person • Provide physical, mental and emotional needs

  21. Registered Nurses continued • Observe, record and assess symptoms, reactions and progress • Administer medications • Assist in convalescence and rehabilitation • Instruct patients and families in proper care • Help individuals and groups take steps to improve health

  22. 4 Levels of Education for Registered Nurses • A.D.N- Associate’s degree in nursing. 2 year degree • BSN- Bachelor of Science degree in nursing- 4 year degree

  23. 4 Levels continued • MSN- Master of Science Degree in nursing. Focuses on practice, management, education- usually 2 years • Ph.D.- Doctorate- focus on research, education, or administration- usually 2 years

  24. Licensed Practical Nurses (LPN) • Care for the sick, injured, convalescing, handicapped • Under the direction of an RN or physician. • Take and record vital signs, • Change dressings

  25. LPN continued • Administer medications • Change dressings • Insert catheters • Education- 1 year

  26. Pharmacists • Advise health professionals and the public on proper selection and use of medications

  27. Pharmacists continued • Dispense drugs prescribed by physicians • Education- 6 years for doctorate in pharmacy- PharmD

  28. Dieticians (Nutritionists) • Apply basic principles of nutrition to food selection and meal preparations.

  29. Dieticians (Nutritionists) continued • Counsel individuals and groups • Setup and supervise food service systems for institutions, such as schools, hospitals etc. • Promote sound eating habits through education and research • Education-4 years

  30. Dietary Technicians • Works as a member of the food services health team and under the direction of a dietician. • Supervise and support staff • Monitor cost and quality • Counsels and develops nutritional plans • Education- 1 year

  31. Optometry • Optometrists- Provides vision care, prescribes corrective lenses and dispenses eyewear. • Education- 4 years preoptometry, 4 years optometrics

  32. Optometry continued • Ophthalmologists- a physician who specializes in medical diagnosis, medical and surgical treatment of vision disorders, especially disease and injuries to the eye.

  33. Optometry continued • Dispensing Opticians- Order the necessary ophthalmic lab work, help customer select lens, frames, adjust eyeglasses. • Education-1-2 years

  34. Physician Assistant • Evolved in the 1960’s due to the shortage of physicians at the time.

  35. Physician Assistant continued • Provides routine diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health care services under the direction of a physician. • Take medical histories • Examine • Order and interpret lab tests and X rays • Make preliminary diagnoses

  36. Physician Assistant continued • Teach patients • Education- 4 years, then 4 years of additional studies

  37. Speech/Language Pathologists • Assess and treat persons experiencing speech or language problems resulting from total or partial hearing loss, brain injury, cerebral palsy, cleft palate, voice pathology, mental retardation, faulty learning, emotional problems, foreign dialects. • Education- 4 yrs plus masters program

  38. EMT-Paramedics • Recognize, assess & manage medical emergencies of acutely ill or injured persons in the pre-hospital setting under the direction of a physician. • Education 1-2 yrs

  39. Radiography • Radiologists- physicians who specialize in interpretation of radiographs.

  40. Radiography continued • Radiographers- produce x ray films of all parts of the human body for use in diagnosing medical problems. Prepare patient for exam. • Education 1-2 yrs.

  41. Sonographers • Use nonionizing equipment to transmit sound waves at high frequencies into the patient’s body, then collect reflected echoes to form an image.

  42. Sonographer continued • The image is viewed on the screen, recorded and can be printed. It is interpreted by the physician • Education- 1-2yrs

  43. Social Workers • Health care social workers are responsible for helping patients and families cope with problems resulting from severe or long term Illness, recovery, and rehab. • Education-4 yrs plus master’s degree

  44. Psychologists • Have a doctorate in psychology • Interview people and administer psychological tests. • Provide counseling and therapy to patients with emotional or adjustment problems in a variety of settings. • Education- 8 yrs

  45. Respiratory Therapists • Evaluate, treat and care for patients with breathing disorders. • Work under the direction of a physician. • Education: 2 yrs

  46. Physical Therapists • Plan, organize and administer treatment to restore functional mobility, relieve pain, and prevent or limit permanent disability. • Education- 4yrs plus master’s degree.

  47. Physical Therapy Assistants • Work under the direction of the physical therapist • Carry out the plan as developed by the physical therapist • Communicate the patient progress toward the goal • Education- 2 years

  48. Occupational Therapists • Treat people with mental, physical, developmental or emotional disabilities. • Help individuals develop or maintain daily living skills and to cope with the physical and emotional aspects of disability. • Education-4 yrs

  49. Occupational Therapy Assistants • Work under the direction of the occupational therapists. • Carry out the plan developed by the OT • Communicate the patient progress towards the goals • Education- 2 years

  50. Electroneurodiagnostic Technologist • Performs tests measuring the functions of the brain including: • EEG • Evoked potential studies • Sleep studies • Brain wave mapping