Case study # 3: South Africac. 1860-2005 History of the Americas HL 12 2016-17 BSGE Jennifer Dikes
IB Topics studied through this unit:Paper 1: Prescribed Subject 4: Rights and ProtestPaper 2 World History Topic 7 - Origins, Development and Impact of Industrialization Paper 2 World History Topic 9 – Evolution and development of democratic states Case study 2: early apartheid South Africa (1948-1964) Nature and characteristics of discrimination • “Petty Apartheid” and “Grand Apartheid” legislation • Division and “classification”; segregation of populations and amenities; creation of townships/forced removals; segregation of education; Bantustan system; impact on individuals Protests and action • Non-violent protests: bus boycotts; defiance campaign, Freedom Charter • Increasing violence: the Sharpeville massacre (1960) and the decision to adopt the armed struggle • Official response: the Rivonia trial (1963–1964) and the imprisonment of the ANC leadership The role and significance of key actors/groups • Key individuals: Nelson Mandela; Albert Luthuli • Key groups: the African National Congress (ANC); the South African Communist Party (SACP) and the MK (Umkhonto we Sizwe—“Spear of the Nation”) Topic 7 - Origins, Development and Impact of Industrialization Case studies are: USA (1880-1920), Argentina (1880—1920), South Africa (1860-1950) The origins of industrialization • The causes and enablers of industrialization; the availability of human and natural resources; political stability; infrastructure • Role and significance of technological developments • Role and significance of individuals The impact and significance of key developments • Developments in transportation • Developments in energy and power • Industrial infrastructure; iron and steel • Mass production • Developments in communications The social and political impact of industrialization • Urbanization and the growth of cities and factories • Labour conditions; organization of labour • Political representation; opposition to industrialization • Impact on standards of living; disease and life expectancy; leisure; literacy and media
IB Topics studied through this unit:Paper 1: Prescribed Subject 4: Rights and ProtestPaper 2 World History Topic 7 - Paper 2 World History Topic 9 – Evolution and development of democratic states Topic 9: Evolution and Development of Democratic States Case Studies are: Chile (1990-2005) and South Africa (1990-2005) Emergence of democratic states • Conditions that encouraged the demand for democratic reform: aftermath of war and/or political upheaval; political, social and economic factors; external influences • The role and significance of leaders • Development of political parties, constitutions and electoral systems; the significance/impact of those developments The development of democratic states • Factors influencing the evolution of democratic states: immigration; ideology; economic forces; foreign influences • Responses to, and impact of, domestic crises • Struggle for equality: suffrage movements; civil protests Impact of democracy on society • Social and economic policies and reforms: education; social welfare; policies towards women and minorities; the distribution of wealth • The extent to which citizens benefit from those policies • Cultural impact; freedom of expression in the arts and media
South Africa today Capital: No official capital. However: Pretoria (executive) Cape Town (legislative) Bloemfontein (judicial) Largest urban center: Soweto Population: 56 million (2015 est.) Land area: 24th largest country in the world Official languages: 11 (most commonly spoken as first languages are Zulu, Xhosa, Afrikaans and English. Others are Ndebele, Northern Sotho, Sotho, Swazi, Tsonga, Tswana and Venda). Most common second language is English – has become the language of government and media after 1994 President: Cyril Ramaphosa Parliament has two houses: Upper house – National Council of Provinces Lower house – National Assembly Creation of Union of South Africa as a member of the British Commonwealth: 1910 Creation of the Republic of South Africa: 1961 Organized into 9 provinces (as of 1994) Religion: 71% Christian (mostly Protestant denominations) Major population categories (2014): Black (African) – 80% White (descendants of European immigrants – Dutch & English before the 1860s; then German, Greek, Italian, etc.): 8.4% Coloureds (mixed race descendants of Dutch and Africans): 8.8% Asian (mostly descendants of laborers from what is now India, Pakistan and Bangladesh): 2.5% Currency: Rand
Government of South Africa The President is both head of state and head of government, and depends for his tenure on the confidence of Parliament. The executive, legislature and judiciary are all subject to the supremacy of the Constitution, and the superior courts have the power to strike down executive actions and acts of Parliament if they are unconstitutional. The National Assembly, the lower house of Parliament, consists of 400 members and is elected every five years by a system of party-list proportional representation. There are no electoral districts, and each party is allocated a number of seats proportionate to the percentage of the votes it receives across the country. After each parliamentary election, the National Assembly elects one of its members as President; hence the President serves a term of office the same as that of the Assembly, normally five years. No President may serve more than two terms in office. The President appoints a Deputy President and Ministers, who form the Cabinet which consists of Departments and Ministries. The President and the Cabinet may be removed by the National Assembly by a motion of no confidence. The National Council of Provinces, the upper house, consists of ninety members, with each of the nine provincial legislatures electing ten members. Election to the NCOP is indirect: citizens vote for provincial legislatures, and each legislature then nominates a delegation of ten members to the NCOP. This means that each of South Africa's nine provinces has equal representation in the Council regardless of population.
Suffrage rights 1910 to 1961 When the Union of South Africa was established in 1910, the Parliament was bicameral and consisted of the King or the Queen, the Senate, and the House of Assembly (known in Afrikaans as the Volksraad). The King (from 1952, the Queen of South Africa) was represented by the Governor-General. Only white men could be senators or MP (Members of Parliament) The right to vote was originally granted to white men in all four provinces, to black men in the Cape Province and Natal, and to Coloured men in the Cape Province – in all cases, the minimum age was 21 years. The composition of Parliament was changed by constitutional amendments from time to time: From 1930, white women had the vote, and the right to serve as senators and MPs, on the same basis as white men. From 1937, black voters were separated from the other races – in the Senate they were represented by four elected senators (two for the Cape, one for Natal, one for the Orange Free State and Transvaal), and in the House of Assembly by three "native representative" MPs elected in separate black constituencies. From 1957, Coloured voters were separated from the whites – in the Senate they were represented by separate senators, and in the House of Assembly by MPs elected in separate Coloured constituencies. Representation of black voters was ended in 1960. Voting age was lowered from 21 to 18 in 1960. 1961 to 1984 Coloured representation was ended in 1968, leaving both the Senate and the House of Assembly representing white voters only. The Senate was abolished in 1981, changing Parliament to a unicameral legislature.
Suffrage rights 1984 to 1994 A new Constitution, introduced in 1984, re-enfranchised the Coloured population (women as well as men), and enfranchised the Indian population. It retained the existing House of Assembly for whites, and established a House of Representatives to represent the Coloureds, and a House of Delegates for the Indians, making Parliament a tricameral legislature. Blacks continued to be excluded. Each house consisted of members elected to represent constituencies, plus a few additional members elected by the MPs, and some nominated by the State President. Each house legislated on "own affairs" exclusive to its own race group, and they legislated jointly on "general affairs" affecting all races. In practice, the House of Assembly, which had more MPs than the other two houses combined, continued to dominate the legislature The black majority were still disfranchised, and the new system lacked legitimacy even among the Coloureds and Asians, many of whom boycotted elections. In a referendum held in 1992, 68.73% of (only white) voters approved the reform process that effectively ended Apartheid. In late 1993, one of the last pieces of legislation passed by the Tricameral Parliament was the Interim Constitution, which took effect on 27 April 1994, the same day as the first non-racial elections. Since 1994 A new interim constitution, introduced in 1994 after four years of negotiation, finally introduced all-race democracy and enfranchised men and women of all races on equal terms, the minimum age remaining 18 years. This was confirmed in the Constitution of 1996, which is still in force.
Constitution of South Africa The South Africa Act 1909, an act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, unified four British colonies – Cape Colony, Transvaal Colony, Orange River Colony and Natal Colony – into the Union of South Africa, a self-governing Dominion. The Republic of South Africa Constitution Act, 1961 transformed the Union into a Republic, replacing the Queen with a State President, but otherwise leaving the system of government unchanged. The Republic of South Africa Constitution Act, 1983 created the Tricameral Parliament, with separate houses representing white, coloured and Indian people but without representation for black people. The figurehead State President and executive Prime Minister were replaced by an executive State President. The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1993 or Interim Constitution was introduced at the end of apartheid to govern the period of transition. It introduced universal adult suffrage, constitutional supremacy and a bill of rights. Current Constitution of South Africa was written between 1994 and 1996, and was formally adopted in 1997.
Constitution of South Africa 1996 (Preamble) We, the people of South Africa, Recognise the injustices of our past; Honour those who suffered for justice and freedom in our land; Respect those who have worked to build and develop our country; and Believe that South Africa belongs to all who live in it, united in our diversity. We therefore, through our freely elected representatives, adopt this Constitution as the supreme law of the Republic so as to Heal the divisions of the past and establish a society based on democratic values, social justice and fundamental human rights; Lay the foundations for a democratic and open society in which government is based on the will of the people and every citizen is equally protected by law; Improve the quality of life of all citizens and free the potential of each person; and Build a united and democratic South Africa able to take its rightful place as a sovereign state in the family of nations. May God protect our people. Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika. Morena boloka setjhaba sa heso. God seën Suid-Afrika. God bless South Africa. Mudzimu fhatutshedza Afurika. Hosi katekisa Afrika. http://www.gov.za/documents/constitution-republic-south-africa-1996-preamble