“I believe that reading, in its original essence, (is) that fruitful miracle of communication in the midst of solitude.” ~ Marcel Proust
Metaphorical Thinking: What is Literacy? Think of an object or animal that best represents “literacy.” Complete this phrase: “If literacy were an object/animal, it would be a…this object/animal represents literacy because of its…”
Movers & Thinkers: Reading Strategies to Engage High-Ability Learners Gem Thomerson email@example.com
Characteristics of High Ability Readers • Have large, advanced vocabularies and are able to use them correctly • May be self-taught, but in any event read early, enthusiastically, and widely, often above grade level; • Select reading material purposefully and enjoy challenging books • Can be described as voracious and enthusiastic readers • Understand language subtleties, use language for humor, write words and sentences early, and produce superior creative writing (poetry, stories, plays) • Display verbal ability in self-expression, descriptive phrasing, and ease in learning a second language.
Brown and Rogan (1983) suggest that gifted readers may be in jeopardy of losing sight of schools as places to find engaging books because they are held back from finding and interacting with materials that are appropriate for their ability levels.
Think About This… Academic rigor is not about curriculum or materials. It is, however, about a state of mind and the climate that results from creating and cultivating a state of mind and climate, which is a product of a teacher with high expectations and a repertoire of engaging learning opportunities which support students to find meaning and make sense of the content. Like differentiated instruction, academic rigor is a way to think about teaching and learning and not a formula with a set script.
“Reading programs for the gifted should take into account the individual characteristics of the children, capitalize on the gifts they possess, and expand and challenge their abilities.” ~ D. Levande (1993)
“An academically rigorous environment is where students grapple with complexity, explore and construct new knowledge, ask more questions than generate answers and have the motivation and abilities to make connections that go beyond the boundaries of what is learned in school to what is learned in life.”
Reading Instruction for High Ability Readers Should: • Be more than a skills-oriented approach • Focus on developing higher-cognitive level comprehension skills • Foster a desire to read • Include a variety of reading strategies which are based on the current needs and strengths of the reader. Instruction must respond to their abilities.
Therefore, educators must provide challenging learning activities along with advanced texts to truly meet the needs of the high ability reader.
Characteristics of Books for High Ability Readers High level of language and vocabulary Language patterns and vocabulary from other times and places Utilize the full array of literary devices Use of descriptive works that stimulate vivid images The plot creates a sense of adventure and creativity The structure of the book puts the mind to work
Elements of a Text that Engage the Mind • Advanced Vocabulary • Complex Sentence Structures • Intricate Plot Structure • Multiple Perspectives • Points of View • Ambiguous Endings • Engaging Content
Bloom Would Choose Books That… • Invite analysis of character, events, and interactions • That allow the reader to synthesize ideas from the book using discussion or from reader’s prior experience • Evaluate relationships, actions, interactions, consequences, alternatives, and the possibilities. • Create meaning. ~ Halsted (1994)
Curriculum Programs to Engage High-Ability Readers • Junior Great Books – www.greatbooks.org • Center for Gifted at the College of William & Mary - William & Mary Literature Units & Jacob’s Ladders– www.kendallhunt.com; www.prufrock.com • William & Mary Novel Navigator Series –www.cfge.wm.edu • National Research Center on the Gifted & Talented at the University of Virginia – “What Works in Gifted Education: Excellence and Equity in the Education of Gifted Students,” 3rd grade literature units research pilot • Michael Clay Thompson Word Study Series - www.rfwp.com
Teachers Matter in Value-Added • When growth in achievement does occur in the top 20%ile it is because high achieving students are with highly effective teachers • (Sanders & Rivers, 1996) • Causes for ineffectiveness in top 20%: • “Lack of opportunity to proceed at own pace; lack of challenging materials; lack of accelerated course offerings; concentration of instruction on the average or below-average students”. This finding indicates that it cannot be assumed that higher-achieving students will make it on their own.” • (Wright, Sanders, & Horn, 1997; p. 66).
Program Goals & Objectives • Goal 1 – To develop inference skills and judging relationships among data provided Goal 2 – To develop deductive reasoning skills, moving from the concrete to the abstract • Goal 3 – To develop literary analysis skills, based on understanding literary elements • Goal 4-To develop synthesis skills, moving from restating to creative synthesis • Goal 5 - To promote learning through interaction and discussion of reading material in the classroom
It’s Research-Based • Students who were exposed to the JL curriculum showed significant gains in reading comprehension and critical thinking. • These same students showed growth on curriculum-based assessments that included the specific ones the JL process targeted. • From this group, the students claimed that they have a greater interest in reading and that the ladders made them “think harder.” • Teachers reported more in-depth student discussion and personal growth in the ability to ask open-ended questions (Stambaugh, 2008).
Golden Fawn & Jacob’s Ladder My name is Golden Fawn. I am a Native American from the Iroquois nation. My family and I live in a village of longhouses surrounded by a wall. We live in the village most of the year except when the men hunt deer or the women go gathering nuts. Our farm fields are outside the village. My family and our dog live with seven other families in our longhouse. It has a frame of tall poles on the sides and two rows of taller poles running down the center inside the house. The walls and roof are completely covered with bark. There are only two doors and no windows. There are cooking fires in the center of the house. There is no hole in the roof, and the house is always very smoky. ~ from DD2 adopted 2nd grade social studies text
D 3 D 2 “Golden Fawn” D 1
The College of William and Mary ELA Units The Integrated Curriculum Model Process-Product Dimension Advanced Content Dimension Issues/Themes Dimension - VanTassel-Baska, 1986
Taba Model of Concept Development Literature Web Hamburger/Dagwood Model Reasoning Model Research Model Vocabulary Web Research-BasedLanguage Arts Teaching Models
Concept of ChangeUsing the Taba Model • Cite examples. • Categorize. • Cite non-examples. • Generalize.
Concept Outcome Statements Concept Application to Content Generalizations Applications to Other Disciplines
Change may happen naturally or be caused by people. Change may be perceived as orderly or random. Change may be positive or negative. Change is linked to time. Change is everywhere. Change Model CHANGE
Images/Symbols Key Words Structure Feelings Ideas READING Literature Web - Full Form
Purpose/ Goal Point of View Assumptions Evidence/ Data Issue/ Problem Inferences Concepts/ Ideas Implications/ Consequences Elements of Reasoning -- Paul, 1992
Standards of Reasoning • Are there enough reasons to make a convincing argument? • Is the evidence correct or right? • Are the reasons clear? • Are specific reasons or examples included rather than vague generalizations? • Are the arguments and reasons strong and important? • Is the thinking logical?
Reasoning about a Situation or Event What is the situation? Who are the stakeholders? What is the point of view for each stakeholder? What are the assumptions of each group? What are the implications of these views?
What information resources would be best to explore for each question? What did I find out from each source? What did I learn? What do I want to know? (List questions.) Research Topic Web TOPIC
Vocabulary Web Synonyms: Source (sentence where you saw the word): Definition: WORD: Antonyms: Part of Speech: Example: Analysis Word Families: Stems: Origin:
Strategies to Engage Thinkers & Make Them Move & Think • 4 Corners * • Metaphorical Thinking * • Admit Slips * • Graffiti Board * • Frozen Tableaux * • Who Are You As A Reader? * • Socratic Seminars • Gallery Walks • Tea Party – can be seen in “The Question Mark” SIG Newsletter for Spring 2010
Graffiti Board Students respond through art and/or writing on a piece of chart paper located at the front of the room or on each group’s table. Students are encouraged to write and sketch their thoughts about the prompt (artwork, open-ended question, etc.) in a graffiti fashion. Their responses, comments, sketches, quotes, and connections are not organized in any manner. The goal is to record initial responses during or right after issuing a prompt. Group members/whole class members can then share their thinking using their graffiti as a reference. These boards can also lead to organizing and webbing student connections to find a focus for further discussion or for post-assessment reflection.
Frozen Tableaux This is a strategy in which students create a scene and freeze the action, then discuss what is happening and their reactions to it. Using physical poses, gestures, and facial expressions, students convey the characters, action, and significance of a moment.
Who are You as Reader? • I read because ______________________ • I would rather read than _________________ • The book that I would take to a desert island is ______________________ • My reading genre preference is (are) ________________________ • A new word in my life is ____________________ • I can’t wait to read _________________ ! • A book that has haunted me ___________________ • You know that I am a reader because ______________ S. Richards (2005)
More Ways to Encourage a Life-Long Love for Reading • Literacy Meetings/Book Chats • Book Talks • Poet of the Week • Reading Picnics • Story Analysis Chart • Challenge Notebook • Book Buddies • Literary Feasts
The mind is not a vessel to be filled, but a fire to be kindled. ~ Plutarch
Please read and think: • Read your strip of paper silently. • Reread it, and think (ask questions, make inferences, make connections, etc.). You may write your thoughts in your journal. • Reread with your group, and then discuss your thoughts and questions with your teammates. • Decide on ONE big question your group has regarding the strip of paper.