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SECRET OPERATIONS OF THE COLD WAR…. Five Quick Facts. Espionage is the process of gathering information about a rival or enemy, usually through secret operations. Major Cold War powers had agencies that engaged in espionage, like the CIA (US), KGB (USSR) and MI5 (UK).

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  2. Five Quick Facts • Espionage is the process of gathering information about a rival or enemy, usually through secret operations. • Major Cold War powers had agencies that engaged in espionage, like the CIA (US), KGB (USSR) and MI5 (UK). • The CIA, for example, collected info, assisted anti-communist leaders and researched new weapons and techniques. • The Soviets had a much longer history of espionage and employed it to successfully obtain American nuclear secrets. • Espionage and spies became an enduring motif of the Cold War. There were many incidents and accusations involving espionage, including the execution of the Rosenbergs, the capture of Gary Powers and his U2 spyplane, and the Petrov affair in Australia.

  3. USSR • Soviet Russia had a much longer history of intelligence-gathering and espionage. Russian secret police organisations dated back to the Okhrana in the late 1800s, the communist CHEKA (1917-22), the OGPU (1922-34) and Stalin’s NKVD (1934-54).

  4. KGB • All used covert methods to gather information about political dissidents and potential ‘enemies of the state’. After the death of Joseph Stalin in 1953, the NKVD was replaced by the KGB (Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti, or ‘Committee for National Security’). • The KGB assumed responsibility for both domestic security and foreign intelligence. Another department, Glavnoye Razvedyvatel’noye Upravleniye (GRU) gathered intelligence for the Soviet military. • Decades of experience, along with a greater preparedness to employ devious tactics, gave the Soviet Union a distinct ‘head start’ when it came to espionage. The Soviets began mobilising agents and recruiting informers in Western countries during the 1930s. During World War II, Moscow prioritised the infiltration of the Manhattan Project, America’s nuclear weapons research program. Soviet agents were able to obtain and pass on technical information about this program, including blueprints, with remarkable ease. By the time the US dropped its first atomic bomb on Japan in August 1945, Stalin knew more about this new weapon than many American politicians.

  5. KGB Kmitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopanosti • March 13, 1954- November 6, 1991 • Committee of State Security. It is in control of frontier and general security and the labor force system of the former Soviet Union. • Headquarters in Moscow • Principal Soviet security agency; the principal intelligence agency; the principal secret police agency

  6. External espionage Counter espionage The liquidation of anti- Soviet and counter revolutionary organizations Guard critical state property Guard the Communist Party and State leaders Gather U.S. atomic secrets Guard national borders. Successfully recruit spies. Tasks and Organizations of the KGB….


  8. Melita Norwood • Soviet spy at the age of 25. • Revealed information to the KGB for 40 years. • Information with state secrets from her job at the British Non- Ferrous Metals Research Association (building nuclear weapons) • Her codename was “Lola”. • Exposed in 1999 • Told secrets of nuclear weapon developments. • Her reason, “Only wanted Russia on equal footing.”

  9. Kim Philby • High ranked member of the British Intelligence. • Lifelong career as a spy for the Soviet Union • A part of the Cambridge Five along with Donald Maclean, Guy Burgess, Anthony Blunt, and John Caircross. • Admired communism. • 1962- confirmed as a Soviet spy. • On January 23, 1963 he dissapeared • Gave away atomis secrets.

  10. Vasili Nikitich Mitrokhin • Major and Senior archivist for the Soviet Union’s foreign intelligence service in 1948. • Went undercover for many assignments. • Mishandled an operation and exiled from KGB. • Once exiled and reflecting on KGB life he said, “I could not believe such evil. It was planned, prepared, thought out in advance. It was a terrible shock when I read things.” About the Russian people. • Acquired 25,000 pages worth of information from the USSR. • Gave it to the United States, but it was rejected. • Then took it to Britain, where they believed the work had potential. London accepted him as an agent.

  11. Aldrich Ames • Started to work for the CIA in 1962 and started his work as a double agent in 1985. • Former Central Intelligence Agency counter- intelligence officer. • Told the USSR of at least 100 operations . • KGB mole in CIA. • Convicted in 1994.

  12. Robert Philip Hanssen • FBI Agent • Spied for USSR • Sold American Secrets to Moscow for $1.4 million in cash and diamonds over 15-year period • Read books by Kim Philiby • Sold 3 KGB agents in the Unisted States secretly working for the FBI. • Revealed expensive tunnel dug under the Soviet Empire for eavesdropping. • Plan for computer program designed to track enemies. • His treason has been described as the “worst intelligence disaster in US history.”

  13. John Earl Haynes, historian • “The issue of Soviet espionage became a US obsession, and domestic security dominated public discourse. Legislative committees vied with one another to expose communists. The executive branch laboured to root out disloyal government employees. The courts wrestled with the balance between constitutional rights and societal self-protection… There was a widespread consensus that Soviet espionage was a serious problem, that American communists assisted the Soviets, and some high officials had betrayed the United States.”

  14. CIA • Started as an office of Strategic Services. • One early directive (1948) authorised the CIA to conduct secret operations “against hostile foreign states or groups or in support of friendly foreign states or groups” so that “US government responsibility for them is not evident to unauthorized persons”.

  15. From the outset, the CIA’s structure, mission and methods were shaped by the Cold War. • The CIA was also supported by other US government agencies. • The National Security Agency (NSA, formed 1952) obtained information by monitoring, intercepting and decoding signals and radio traffic. • The Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI, formed 1908) was responsible for investigating domestic criminal activity, including espionage and treasonable activities.

  16. Central Intelligence Agency is an intelligence agency of the United States Government. • Obtains and analyzes information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals. • Reports the information to the government. • “Hidden hand” of the government through “covert actions” at “the direction of the President.”

  17. The Shah of Iran, one of several figures helped into power by the CIA • The CIA’s Cold War activities ranged from general surveillance of suspected foreign agents, to the deployment of agents abroad, to illicit operations like assassinations and human experimentation. • The CIA also supported US foreign policy by providing support, funding and equipment to anti-communist leaders and groups abroad (one of its first major missions was to assist non-communist parties in Italy in 1948).

  18. Several Cold War coups and attempted coups, such as the 1973 overthrow of Salvador Allende in Chile, were conducted with the backing or active involvement of the CIA.

  19. In 1959-61 CIA agents recruited and trained 1,500 Cuban exiles, who in April 1961 attempted to invade the island-state and overthrow Fidel Castro. • CIA pilots flew U-2 flights over Soviet and Cuban territory, collecting data about military facilities, armaments and troop movements. • The CIA also plotted assassination attempts on foreign leaders, like Castro. • In 1974 the CIA spent more than $US800 million on Project Azorian, a mission to recover codebooks and nuclear technology from a sunken Soviet sub, laying under 16,000 feet of water in the Pacific Ocean.

  20. The CIA, sometimes operating jointly with the Department of Defense, also funded extensive research into nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, the effects of these weapons on humans, as well as effective interrogation and mind control strategies. • The largest of these research programs was Project MK-ULTRA, which ran from 1953 to the late 1960s and soaked up more than $US10 million in funding. MK-ULTRA was chiefly concerned with the effects of hypnosis and mind-altering drugs, and identifying whether these could be utilised for Cold War purposes.

  21. Many questions have since been raised about MK-ULTRA and the unethical nature of its research. Hundreds of Americans, military personnel chiefly, were subjected to drug trials and experimentation without their informed consent. • MK-ULTRA experiments are believed to have contributed to several deaths, including Harold Blauer and Frank Olson, who died in 1953 after being injected with hallucinogenic drugs. • Other secret programs conducted by the CIA included Operation Mockingbird (aimed at facilitating sympathetic media coverage), • Project Resistance (information-gathering about radical student groups) and Operation Chaos (the disruption of American left-wing and anti-war groups). • One CIA project, Stargate, even investigated psychic abilities and their possible use in intelligence applications.

  22. Hoover and the Bureau • J. Edgar Hoover, the long-serving head of the FBI • US law prohibited the CIA from conducting domestic operations (a restriction it often breached during the Cold War). • Within US borders, investigating and prosecuting suspected spies was the responsibility of the FBI.

  23. Between 1935 and 1972 the FBI was headed by J. Edgar Hoover, a fanatical anti-communist and a ruthless political operator. • The FBI began investigating Soviet espionage in America in 1943, after receiving an anonymous letter. Within two years the FBI had more than doubled in size, to 13,000 agents. • In late 1945 the FBI was provided with extensive information about Soviet espionage by Elizabeth Bentley, who herself had been passing information to Moscow.

  24. Bentley provided the FBI with a 112-page confession, naming 80 people as paid informers or agents working for Moscow. • Bentley’s defection, along with accusations against State Department lawyer Alger Hiss, fuelled the anti-communist hysteria in America during the late 1940s and early 1950s. • In 1956 Hoover authorised COINTELPRO (short for Counter-Intelligence Program), a prolonged campaign targeting domestic political organisations. • For 15 years, FBI agents infiltrated a range of organisations, including left-wing political parties, unions, civil rights groups, radical student associations, the anti-war movement, regional militias and race hate groups such as the Ku Klux Klan. These agents fed information back to the FBI and occasionally took action to disrupt these groups from within.

  25. Red Scare • A near hysteria was created in the late 40's and 50's with hearings led by Joseph McCarthy accusing people of belonging to the Communist Party

  26. Spies and Espionage • Julius and Ethel Rosenberg • U.S. communists who were executed in 1953 for passing on nuclear secrets to the Soviet Union.

  27. In April 1951 they were sentenced to death in the electric chair. • This generated outrage and disbelief both in America and internationally. • Many thought the Rosenbergs were innocent, while others believed they were little more than go-betweens, undeserving of the death penalty. They were electrocuted in New York in June 1953 – the only Americans to be executed for espionage during the Cold War. • In 1963, British journalist ‘Kim’ Philby disappeared from Lebanon. Philby had earlier been a high-ranking member of Britain’s Secret Intelligence Service (or MI6) before his resignation in 1951. • In reality Philby was a double-agent: he had been passing information to Moscow since the mid-1930s. Philby and two of his fellow agents, Donald McLean and Guy Burgess, defected to the USSR and lived there until their deaths. The British government was further damaged in 1963 when it was revealed that Donald Profumo, a member of cabinet, was sharing a mistress with a known Soviet spy. In 1954 Vladimir Petrov, a Soviet diplomat and KGB colonel, defected to Australia. Petrov provided the government there with information about Soviet spies operating in Australia. The Petrov affair led to the USSR and Australia severing diplomatic ties for five years.

  28. CIA IN THECOLDWAR • During the Cold War the CIA attempted to gain control of other governments, trained military, and paramilitary forces. They also conducted propaganda campaigns. All actions were denied to the press and the public. • Conducted numerous covert operations in the name of keeping the United States safe, and protecting its interests.


  30. “TRIANON” • Codename for Anatoly Filatov. • Spy for the CIA when he was reassigned the Foreign Minister in Moscow. • Supplied paraphernalia for espionage. • Quickly caught by the KGB

  31. OLEG PENKOVSKY • Soviet double agent • Russian World War II military hero to becoming Americas best human intelligence asset in the Soviet Union. • Highest level Soviet officer to ever spy for the U.S. or British Intelligence. • Penkovsky case is considered to have been the most successful Cold War espionage operation.

  32. U2 Flight “The Black Lady” Flown by Francis Gary Powers The reconnaissance flight. UFO scare. Launched May 1, 1960. The aircraft had been followed by Soviet MIG’s at an unreachable height the KGB and the VAD, air defense, decided to use the most up-to-date "ground-to-air" missile. Missed the U2 plane twice before hitting its target. F.G. Powers was captured and sent to solitary confinement for 10 years. SECRET OPERATION… IN THE U.S.

  33. Spying Spying • steal the secrets to better understand there opponent. • soldiers were the trained “spymasters” in the Cold War • spies operated in a world of shadows, deception, and betrayal. • Soviets gathered about the Cambridge Five.


  35. Mossadegh and the CIA • Mossadegh was a leader in Iran • Nationalized Oil Industries • Close ties with Communism • CIA took him out of power and put in Shah Reza Palavi only because of his dissaproval of communism

  36. VIDEO • CIA

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