1 / 23

Maritime transport of passengers

Maritime transport of passengers. Dott.ssa Simona Sanguineti sanguineti@economia.unige.it. Historical passengers overview. Transoceanic passengers flow in the first half of 20 th century. Beginning of ferry transport.

Télécharger la présentation

Maritime transport of passengers

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript

  1. Maritime transport of passengers Dott.ssa Simona Sanguineti sanguineti@economia.unige.it

  2. Historical passengers overview Transoceanic passengers flow in the first half of 20th century

  3. Beginning of ferry transport Savannah (1819)  the first ship that crossed the Ocean with steam-assisted engine Cunard Line  the first shipping company to offer regularly scheduled service from U.S. to England. Concentrated on the delivery of the Royal Mail, not on passengers at all. 115 passengers.

  4. Evolution in technology - XIX century 1819  ship with auxiliary steam engines and two paddle wheels. Savannah river – Liverpool in 27 days. 1831  first cross under steam, but it was need to stop engines every few days for 24 hours. During this time it depended entirely on sails 1838  “Sirius” was the first ship to cross the Atlantic using only steam power 1845  “Great Britain”. First ship with iron hull, double bottom and screw propulsion. It was for many years the largest ship in the world

  5. Historical speed 1819  Savannah river – Liverpool in 27 days 1860s  Liverpool – New York in 10 days 1890s  Liverpool – New York in less than 6 days 1936  Southampton -New York 3 days *** 1900 10 knots 1915 12 knots 1935 30 knots Today more than 40 knots

  6. Competition in XIX century 1840s  Cunard Line, monopoly of the North Atlantic 1850s  Competition between Cunard Line and Collins line 1890s  German enter in the competition. German Line overtook British lines in terms of size and speed.

  7. XX Century German Companies left a greater imprint on shipboard style. They called a single architect/designer for the artistic control for designing a passenger liner’s interior. Comfort and luxury would be them watchwords. By the early 20th century, the Mauritania and Lusitania (Cunard Line) started the tradition of dressing for dinner and advertised the romance of the voyage. Olympic and Titanic (White Star Line) were the most luxurious passenger ships never seen (complete with swimming pool and tennis court) The sinking of the Titanic in 1912 devasted the White Star Line Cunard Line bought White Star Line resulting in Cunard White Star (1934)

  8. Size of some Ships World file…

  9. The end of transatlantic ferries • World War I  The building of new ships was interrupted and many older line were used as troop transport • The years between 1920 and 1940 were considered the most glamorous years for transatlantic passenger ships. American tourist interested in visiting Europe replaced immigrant passengers. • World War II • Increasing air travel and the first non-stop flight to Europe in 1958 marked the ending of transatlantic business for ocean liners

  10. Definitions Ferry ships: vessels used to carry passengers, goods and vehicles across relatively short distance. Ferries generally connect two or three point. Cruise ships: vessels often regarded as “resort at sea”. Unlike ferries, cruise liners are “the destination” rather than a way of reaching destination

  11. Typeof ferry ships • Passenger-only ferry services. Generally are used smaller and faster boats. Ferry rates depend on the distance travelled and the time of the day and season. • Passenger/vehicle ferry services. Vehicles con be cars, lorries or trucks, motorcycles, coaches and buses. Rates vary widely but are usually based on the type, weight and numbers of vehicles transported. • Passenger/train ferry services. Often this ferries have permanent on-board rail tracks. • Cruise ferries. They are luxury ferries and take passengers on mini-cruises.

  12. Type of cruise ships • Super mega (giant) ships. Weight more than 100,000 tons and carry over 2,600 passengers. • Mega ships. Weight between 70,000 and 100,000 tons and carry between 1,600 and 2,600 passengers. • Large ships. Weight between 20,000 and 70,000 tons and carry between 500 and 1,600 passengers • Small ships. Weight less than 20,000 tons and carry up to 500 passengers. • Barge, river and speciality cruises. Smaller boats usually operating on inland waterways with limited passengers capacity.

  13. Maritime passenger transport Ferry Cruise • Derived demand • Fixed routes • Ro/ro ships • Search for speed • Final good • Variable routes • Specialized ships • Search for comfort Cruise Ferry

  14. The world fleet Source: Lloyd’s Register, 2001

  15. Passengers ferries • Great variability of capital costs (related to speed, capacity, etc.) • Low operational costs (port costs, crew costs) • The service is homogenous • Mainly used to link islands with mainland • Mainly used by commuters and/or by frequently users • Demand is proportional to the population of the regions that limit the voyage or to the attractive power of the region • The service is sold at a low price • The service links only two or three ports

  16. Cruises • Huge amount of capital costs per ship • High operational costs (crew represents about 1/3 of passengers) • Great differentiation of service (in classes, type of cabins, days per trip, etc.) • The service scheduled considers one home port and some ports of call

  17. Cruise ferries • Sort of hybrid service introduced in the Med in the ’90s • Ferries (ro/ro passengers ships) with a high standard of services • Short routes mainly offered when there is an excess of capacity on ferries • Ratio of member of crew per passenger is higher than ferries and lower than cruises

  18. Passengers market

  19. Ferries vs. Cruises in ports

  20. Cruise passengers in Genoa

  21. Seasonality and trends

  22. High Speed Craft (HSC) According to IMO, a HSC is a craft capable of maximum speed, in meters per second (m/s), equal or exceeding: VHSC=3.7 (D/d)0.1667 Where (D/d) = volume of displacement corresponding to the design waterline (m3). • Monohull • Catamaran • Hovercraft • Surface Effect Ships (SES) • Hydrofoil

  23. References IATA “International Travel and Tourism Training Programme” – 2005 J.Wang, S. Mcowan “Fast passenger ferries and their future” – Maritime Policy and Management - 2005 www.greatoceanliners.net www.oceansatlas.com www.scriptorium.lib.duke.edu www.pbs.org

More Related