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Obligation & Necessity

Obligation & Necessity

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Obligation & Necessity

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  1. English Lesson Modal Verbs “Obligation and Necessity” 4th Group Presented by: Burhanudin Dwi Ruadiantoro Silvia Fatma Noor Rohima Syafiq Hibatullah Wahid Wahyudin

  2. Modals • Modal verbs (also called modal auxiliary verbs, modal auxiliaries) usually express a speaker’s attitude or “moods”. • For example, modals can express that a speaker feels something is necessary, advisable, permissible, possible or probable.

  3. Structureof Modal Verbs

  4. Modals “Must, Have tot to, and Have to” • Must is the strongestmodal verb of the three and is most common in writing. It is unusual to use must in questions and negative. *to show very strong obligation that can’t be ignored. • Have got to is most common in informal speech. It is not used in questions. *Used in informal conversations. Rarely used as a negative. • Have to is the most commonly used modal of obligation. It is useful for forming questions and negatives. *Used in all forms and situations (formal and informal). I must study tonight. I have got to study tonight. She has to study tonight. Does she have to study tonight?

  5. Remember: “have got to” and “have to” are modal verbs and require a simple verb to follow the. The “to” is part of the modal; it is not an infinitive “to”. There is only one way to express past time with these modal verbs: HAD TO (There is no past tense of must/have got to). PRESENT TIME PAST TIME Last night, we had to show our passport at the airport. I had to pay my phone bill this morning. They had to go to the meeting yesterday. • We must show our passport at the airport. • I have got to pay my phone bill soon. • They have to go to the meeting today.

  6. Remember that must is stronger than have to and can sound inappropriate, or even blunt andimpolite. • Must is quite common in written instructions and notices: • You must wear a helmet on the building site • Filters must be changed every year • Mustis also used when imposing an obligation on oneself: • I must stop having strong drinks in the morning • I must wake up earlier • Strong personal opinions are frequently stated by using must: • Terrorism must be stopped at any cost • The peace process must be accelerated • Must is normally used when something needs to be done urgently: • We must phone for an ambulance • We must call the police MUST

  7. Have got to • Use have got to to tell when something is necessary for present and future tenses. It’s use for informal situation Example: I have got to study tonight. • Negative form of Have got to is very uncommon in English spoken. • Use form of “have to” for question and for past instead of “have got to”. • Have got to is often contracted as: I've got to and sounds like “I've gotta...”

  8. Have to • Use have to for all tenses Examples: > I have to go now or  I’ll  miss the bus. > We have to start now. > We had to do a lot of homework. > We will have to finish the project next week. • Be careful! The subject and verb must agree for he/she/it subjects and the question form requires “Do/Does/Did”. Example: > He has to study tonight. Does he have to study tonight? > She has to leave now. Does she have to leave now? 

  9. Have to in Negative and Question • Use don’t / doesn’t have to when something is not necessary (when there is a choice) or is lack of necessity Example:Today is Sunday, We don’t have to go to school this morning. I can hear you, you don’t have to shout. • We can use “Have to” form for question Example : Do you have to go to the beach?

  10. NOTE: MUST and HAVE TO havedifferentmeanings in questions. • Do I havetopaythe full amountnow? (Isitnecessaryfor me…?) • Must I stayforthewhole meeting? (Do youinsistthat I…?)

  11. MUSTN’T and DON’T HAVE TO • Although must and have to both express obligation, mustn’t and don’t have tohave different meanings. • MUSTN’T means “don’t do it” and DON’T HAVE TO means “it’s not necessary to do it”: • We mustn’t make a lot of noise (= it is wrong to do this and it isn’t allowed) • You don’t have to stay at school until  you’re 18. (= you are not obliged to but you can if you want)

  12. SHOULD/OUGHT TO • SHOULD/OUGHT TO: expressduty, weakobligation. These are lessemphaticthan MUST/HAVE TO: Youshouldthinkaboutitbeforeyoumake a final decision.

  13. Necessity with Need Needis used in the sense of 'require'. It has the usual forms needs and needed.Usually,need is followed by an infinitive with to. Example : > Everyoneneeds to be punctual. > Everybodyneeds to be loved.  > You need to work until late tonight. NOTE: NEED can be used as a modal verb or as a main verb with no change in meaning: > Need I put more oil in my car? > Do I need to put more oil in my car?

  14. We can use NEED like a normal verb in all the tenses, but it can also be used as a modal verb in questions and in the negative: • Need I come with you? (=Do I need to come with you?) • Ineedn’t come. (if I don’t want to) (=I don’t need to come. / I don’t have to come) • In positive statements, we say: • I need to come. (not I need come.) I needn't buy any more bread; I have plenty here. But I need to buy some vegetables.

  15. Absence of necessity/obligation • Don’t have to and don’t need to indicate absence of necessity/obligation; don’t need to (as wellas needn’t) tend to express the personal opinion of the speaker more than don’t have to. • He doesn’t need to wear a tie at work *it is not necessary for him to wear a tie • We don’t have to wash the dishes, there’s a washing machine! *it is not necessary to wash the dishes

  16. Modal verb needn’t is used, especially in British English, to say that something is unnecessary. Itis much less common than need to or have to used as ordinary verbs: • You needn’t worry. I’ll be fine. • We needn’t bring snowshoes. We can rent them there.

  17. Exercise 1. Mom: You .... Finish your homework before you go and play. Udin : Ok, mom. a. Should c. Must e. Need b. Have to d. Need to 2. Dwi : I .... Finish mowing the grass soon. Syafiq: Yes, it’s already getting too dark. a. Have to c. Need to e. Should b. Must d. Could

  18. 3. Mother: You .... Eat the spinach if you don’t like it. Wahid : Oh, thank God. a. Musn’t c. Don’t have to e. Couldn’t b. Wouldn’t d. Shouldn’t 4. Jacob: Shall I help you with your shopping? Silvia : No, you .... . I can manage by myself. a. Shouldn’t c. Couldn’t e. Wouldn’t b. Musn’t d. Needn’t 5. You .... the animals in the zoo. a. feed c. Must feed e. Couldn’t feed b. Musn’t feed d. Can feed

  19. 6. Adam: How about going out for movie? Yusuf: Sounds great, but I .... Fix my bicycle. a. Shall c. Must e. Have to b. Will d. Need to 7. Salma : Would you like to go to the flower shop? Adinda: Sounds great, but I .... Take care my sister’s pet. a. Have to c. Need to e. Should b. Must d. Will 8. Where’s the toilet? I ..... go. a. Should c. Musn’t go c. Can b. Might d. Have to

  20. 9. You .... do your homework on Saturday morning. That way you have the rest of the week-end free. a. Might c. Ought to e. Needn’t b. Must d. Shouldn’t 10. Tomorrow’s holiday. We .... get up early. a. Should c. Have to e. Need b. Might d. Don’t have to