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Networking II

Networking II

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Networking II

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  1. Networking II Communication Protocols TCP/IP

  2. Communication software • Regardless of the hardware used to connect networked computers, they also require communication softwarein order to communicate effectively • The software rules and language used by computers on a network to communicate with each other is known as the network protocol • Rules include things like: • Transmission speed • Pre-agreed upon codes for things like “are you ready yet—I’m about to begin sending a data file” or “Did you receive the file I just sent” • The communication software used by computers on a network must agreeto follow the same protocol • Eg: If two computers don’t agree on transmission speed (one “speaks” at 56,600 bps and the other “listens” at 28,800, the message will not get through.

  3. Forms of communication software • Communication software can take a variety of forms • Computers whose exclusive (or main) networking needs are to speak with other computers on a LAN may use network operating system software (NOS) such as Novell’s Netware or Microsoft’s Windows Server or Apple’s AppleTalk • In the same way that an OS hides the inner workings of many of a computer’s doings, a NOS hides the inner workings of network communications • A NOS must be able to respond to requests from other computers on the LAN and must be configured to agree on the various protocols

  4. Quick review of some network types: • Peer-to-Peer • Client Server • Host-Terminal

  5. Host-Terminal Network • A very basic and somewhat dated form of communication involves a host which has all of the information. • A series of “dumb terminals” can connect to that host • The “dumb” terminal (that is, a keyboard and a monitor without any processing power) connects to a host • The host holds all of the important information • All the terminal can do is send questions to the host. The host sends back the answers which are printed on the screen. There is no graphical user interface. That is, it’s all text-based. • Was very popular in reservations systems such as when purchasing airplane or train tickets • Less common nowadays

  6. Peer-to-Peer network • Users can share resources and files on their computers with other users on the network • No centralized source • E.g. If the shared printer on your network happens to be in someone elses’s office and that person is out for the day with their computer off, you’re out of luck. • Has the advantages of being pretty easy to set up and not requiring a dedicated server • Disadvantages of not being centralized and not having the security features usually found in dedicated network software

  7. Client-server network • The network can centralize files and resources in one or more servers • Computers connected to the network can access the server to request those resources (files, peripherals, etc)

  8. NOS and LAN Type • The choice and functionality of a NOS depends on the type of network. • Many networks are set up according to a client-server model • One or more computers act as dedicated servers to serve data (files, music, spreadsheets, etc), peripherals (print server), or other network resources • These are typically faster, higher capacity computers • The majority of the computers act as clients who ‘request’ these resources from the server • The server will run NOS Server software, and the clients will run NOS Client software • Small networks are sometimes designed using the peer-to-peer model (P2P) in which each computer acts as both a server and a client. • That is, any one computer can make a request of any other computer on the network • Many home desktop OSs such as Windows and Mac systems have this type of networking pre-installed • This is how you can share files and peripherals among different computers in your house • Many networks are hybrids of these two models (Client/Server and P2P)

  9. An example of P2P in Use • This dialog box allows me to share the ‘My Music’ folder on my computer with any other computer on my network. • However, some kind of P2P software must be present both on this computer and on all other on the network in order for them to be able to share the resource.

  10. Example – Client for MS Networks • Here is an example showing P2P software installed on a computer • Most Windows PCs come installed with a basic NOS client called ‘Client for Microsoft Networks’ • This client allows the PC to communicate with other computers on the same network (e.g. other computers at your home) to do things like share files, folders, printers, and other network resources • The last option (not shown) is TCP/IP – we’ll discuss this shortly

  11. Example: a PC with Novell’s Netware installed

  12. Intranets • These days, many LAN administrators no longer bother purchasing and installing NOS software. Instead, they design their network protocol based on an intranet system. • An intranet is a system built around the protocols and standards used by the internet.

  13. The Mother of all Networks: The Internet • We’ll discuss specifics of the internet in a later lecture • For now we will focus on the network protocol used by the internet, TCP/IP

  14. Why TCP/IP? • Two major advantages over other network protocols / NOSs • Internetworking: this protocol was developed as an experiment in internetworking – that is, connecting different types of networks and NOSs • E.g. A Novell network can talk to an AppleTalk network provided that they can both “speak TCP/IP” • Open Standard: The TCP/IP specs are not owned by any company. Any networked computer can freely install TCP/IP • As a result, when the internet was initially conceived (as something called ARPANET), TCP/IP was chosen as the networking protocol

  15. Overview of TCP/IP • TCP/IP is one way of controlling how messages can be sent out over a network. • TCP: Transmission Control Protocol • IP: Internet Protocol • Some of the ‘rules’ specified by this protocol: • Every piece of data sent over a network must be broken into a series of small packets. • A packet is typically 1000-1500 bytes • Each packet must contain: • The data (eg a small piece of an MP3 song) • Sender’s location (IP address) • Receiver’s location (IP address) • A sequence number (so that the packet can be reassembled back into its original whole) • And a few other things • This whole process takes milliseconds! • Breaking a message into packets • Sequencing the packets • Assigning addresses to each packet • Routing packets to the destination • Reassembling the packets into the whole

  16. A simplified view of a packet

  17. Routing • Every packet is routed through a series of routers to its ultimate destination. • Different packets from the same message may take a different route, but all the packets will ultimately make it to the appropriate destination. • One at the destination, the packet is reassembled into the whole message (e.g. the complete MP3 song) • The TCP part is responsible for assigning a proper sequence to each packet so that it can be reassembled • IP part is responsible for coordinating the sending and receiving addresses • The reason the internet as a whole never goes “down” is that a single packet can take thousands of different routes to arrive at its destination • So even if a given area is down or very slow, the packet can use a different route to reach its destination

  18. IP – Internet Protocol • IP is the addressing system of the internet • Every computer connected to the internet has a unique “IP address” • No two computers have the same address • An IP address is made up of 4 numbers separated by periods (“dots”) • E.g. is the IP address of the computer hosting the web server • Every packet routed through the internet contains the IP address of both the sending and receiving computer • Conversion between the IP address (e.g. and the familiar names that we like to use ( is the responsibility of a domain name system server (DNS server) • More on this shortly

  19. Who assigns IP addresses? • Addresses are allocated by a regional internet registry (RIR) • Larger organizations are given entire blocks of addresses (e.g. 140.192 was given to DePaul) • The organization can then allocate the remaining two sets of numbers to all of the computers in its network • For example, DePaul owns 140.192 (and can allocate the remaining two sets of numbers as it wishes) • E.g. it delegated the 1.6 ( at the end to the university’s main web server • Similarly, ABC News owns 199.181 and can delegate the remainder as it wishes

  20. Static v.s. Dynamic IP Addresses • An IP address can be static or dynamic • A static IP address is permanently assigned to a computer • Most web servers have static IP addresses • If a computer has a dynamic IP address, it means that the IP address for that computer changes • This is almost always the case when you connect to the internet using WiFi. The ISP providing the internet connection assigns you a unique IP address for the duration of your connection. When you disconnect, the address is freed up for someone else to use. • The next time you connect, you get a brand new IP address, which, again, will last until you disconnect • This situation sometimes applies to broadband (always-on) connections as well

  21. What’s my IP Address ? •

  22. Why we don’t typically use/see IP addresses • Clearly, is a lot more user-friendly than • TRY IT! Go to your browser and type: • The reason we don’t have to deal with those ugly numbers is thanks to the internet’s domain name system (DNS) • Some examples of domain names: • • • • DNS servers maintain tables that map domain names (e.g. to IP addresses (e.g. 140.192) • E.g. Whenever you type in a user-friendly domain name (e.g. into a web browser and click ‘Go’, a DNS server somewhere kicks in an immediately converts the domain name into an IP address • All of the subsequent routing is done using IP addresses – not domain names

  23. DNS

  24. Running out of space… • The exponential growth of the internet means that we are running out of domain names. • In addition to more people connecting to the internet, many people have several connections (e.g. desktop, laptop, cell phone, PDA, etc) • Recall that IPv4 uses 4 groups of numbers for each IP. Each number can range from 1 to 256. This allows for approximately 4.3 billion addresses. We’re already running out! • For this reason, the various standards organizations involved with governance and maintenance of the internet are developing a new version of IP from version 4 (IPv4) to version 6 (IPv6) • IPv6 has several advantages, chief among them, many, many more possible IP addresses (3.4×1038) • Over the next few years, the majority of internet devices will have IP addresses conforming to the IPv6 standard • A valid IPv6 address: 2001:0db8:85a3:08d3:1319:8a2e:0370:7334 • The switch has been mandated, but is nowhere near being fully implemented. The two IP versions will both work for the time being.