Reference • Current Edition: COMDTINST M16672.2D • Previous Edition (C) from 1999 • MORE Revisions, but no new printing
Navigation Rules and Regulations • Part A – General (Rules 1-3) • Application, Responsibilities and Definitions • Part B-Steering and Sailing Rules (Rules 4-19) • Section 1- Conduct of Vessels in any condition of visibility • Section 2- Conduct of Vessels in sight of one another • Section 3- Conduct of Vessels in restricted visibility
Navigation Rules and Regulations • Part C- Lights and Shapes (Rules 20-31) • Part D- Sound and Light Signals (Rules 32-37) • Part E- Exemptions (Rule 38)
Navigation Rules and Regulations • Annex I - Positioning and Technical Details of Lights and Shapes • Annex II - Additional Signals for Fishing Vessels Fishing in Close Proximity • Annex III - Technical Details of Sound Signal Appliances • Annex IV -Distress Signals • Annex V - Pilot Rules
Navigation Rules and Regulations • Interpretive Rules • Demarcation Lines • Penalty Provisions • Alternative Compliance • Waters Specified by the Secretary • Vessel Bridge to Bridge Radiotelephone Regulations
Rule 1: Applicability • What is the dividing line between International and Inland? • Line of Demarcation • Annex IV. Demarcation Lines
Rule 2: Responsibility • “Nothing in these Rules shall exonerate any vessel, or the owner, master or crew thereof, from the consequences of any neglect to comply with these Rules or of the neglect of any precaution which may be required by the ordinary practice of seaman.” • General Prudential Rule: the mariner is responsible not only for complying with the Rules but also for avoiding a collision. • Special Situations • In extremis situations
Rule 3: General Definitions • Vessel • Power driven vessel • Sailing vessel • Non-displacement craft • Seaplanes • Underway • Making way • Not making way Special Conditions • Vessel engaged in fishing • Not under command Restricted in ability to maneuver • Constrained by draft (int’l rules only)
Rule 3: Definitions • Vessel: includes every description of water craft used or capable of being used as a means on transportation on water. Includes: -Power-driven vessels -Sailboats -Seaplanes -Non-displacement craft
Rule 3: Definitions WIG – “Wing in Ground Craft” Wing-In-Ground (WIG) craft" means a multimodal craft which, in its main operational mode, flies in close proximity to the surface by utilizing surface-effect action. Presently, there are no Coast Guard safety standards for WIG craft.
Rule 3: DefinitionsVessel engaged in fishing • Vessel engaged in fishing means any vessel fishing with nets, lines, trawls or other fishing apparatus which restrict maneuverability. • Does NOT include vessel engaged in trawling.
Rule 3: DefinitionsVessel not under command • Vessel not under command means a vessel which through some exceptional circumstances is unable to maneuver to comply with the Rules. • Propulsion casualty • Steering casualty
Rule 3: DefinitionsVessel restricted in ability to maneuver • Vessel restricted in ability to maneuver means a vessel which from the nature of her work is unable to keep out of the way of another vessel. • Examples: • Laying Nav aids • Dredging/Surveying • UNREP • Flight Ops • Mine clearance Ops
Rule 3: DefinitionsVessel constrained by draft • Vessel constrained by draft means a power driven vessel which, because of her draft in relation to the available depth is severely restricted in her ability to deviate from her present course.
Rule 4: ApplicationRule 5: Look-out • Application (Rule 4) - Rules in this section apply in Any condition of visibility. • Look-out (Rule 5) • Maintain Proper Lookout • Use all available means • Must use sight and hearing • Binoculars/Radar • Bearing circle/Alidade • Night vision devices • Also required at anchor
Rule 6: Safe Speed • Determinants of Safe Speed • Draft of vessel in relation to charted depth • Stopping distance and turning ability • Presence of background lighting • State of winds, sea, and current • State of visibility • Traffic density • A Vessel must proceed at Safe speed “At all times”
Rule 6: Safe Speed • Vessels with operational radar should also consider: • Characteristics, efficiency and limitations of the radar set • Constraints imposed by range scale in use • Effect on radar of sea state, weather or other interference • Possibility that small vessels, objects, or ice may not be detected by radar at an adequate range to avoid collision. • Number, location, and movement of vessels detected
Rule 7: Risk of Collision • Risk of Collision • Every vessel shall use all available means to determine if risk of collision exists. • Early use of RADAR to obtain early warning risk of collision • Systematic observation • Such risk is deemed to exist if the compass bearing of an approaching vessel does not appreciably change. CBDR
Rule 7: Risk of Collision • Note that a risk of collision may exist even if there is appreciable bearing change evident particularly when approaching a tow, a very large vessel, or at close range.
Rule 8: Action to Avoid Collision • Any action taken to avoid collision shall bepositive, made in ample time, and with due regard to the observance of good seamanship. • Action taken should be large enough to be readily apparent to the other vessel. • Action taken to avoid collision with another vessel shall result in passing at a safe distance. • The effectiveness of the action shall be carefully checked until the vessel is passed and clear.
Rule 8: Action to Avoid Collision • Two variables can be altered to avoid collision: course and speed. • Change course to avoid “close-quarter situations”. • Slacken speed or take all way to allow more time to assess the situation. • Even if you are the stand on vessel, you still must take action to AVOID COLLISION
Rule 9: Narrow Channels • Narrow Channels (Rule 9) • Stay on the “right” side of the channel • Sailing vessels and vessels < 20 meters shall not impede vessels restricted to the channel. • Fishing vessels shall not impede other vessels. • Crossing vessels shall not impede other vessels. • Do not anchor in a channel
Rule 10: Traffic Separation Schemes • Traffic Separation schemes my be adopted by the IMO for the purpose of these Rules. • Use small angle of approach to enter/depart. • Cross the scheme at right angles. • You can fish in the lanes as long as you do not impede passage of the other vessels. • Small vessels and sailing vessels shall not impede the passage of a power driven vessel in a lane.
Rule 10: Traffic Separation Schemes • Vessels not using the traffic separation scheme should avoid it by as wide a margin as possible. • Vessels Restricted in their Ability to Maneuver working on the traffic separation scheme or an underwater cable do not have to comply with this rule to the extent that it is necessary to carry out the operation.
Part B-Steering and Sailing Rules (Rules11-18) Section 2- Conduct of Vessels in sight of one another
Rules 11 & 12 • Rule 11 – Applicability • These rules apply to vessels in sight of one another • Rule 12 – Sailing Vessels
Rule 13: Overtaking • Requires the overtaking vessel to keep out of the way of the vessel being passed. • An overtaking situation exists when a vessel approaches another vessel more than 22.5deg abaft the beam. • At night can only see the stern light.
Rule 14: Head On Situation • Rule 14 requires both power-driven vessels to maneuver to starboard. • A meeting situation exists if two power vessels approach on reciprocal or near reciprocal courses. • Determined by your ability to see masthead lights in line or both sidelights or the corresponding aspect during the day
Rule 15: Crossing Situation • Rule 15 between POWER-DRIVEN vessels requires the vessel that has the other on its starboard side to keep clear.
Rules 16/17: Action by Give-way and Stand-on Vessels • Give-way: Every vessel which is directed to keep out of the way of another vessel shall, so far as possible, take early and substantial action to keep well clear. • Stand-on: Where one of two vessels is to keep out of the way, the other vessel shall keep her course and speed.
Rules 16/17: Action by Give-way and Stand-on Vessels • The stand-on vessel should take action to avoid collision if it is obvious that the give-way vessel is not maneuvering or if collision is so close that action by the give way vessel alone will not avoid collision • Normally you should not alter your course to port for a vessel on your port side
Rule 18: Responsibilities Between Vessels Vessels in Sight of One Another • Order of Precedence • Vessel not under command • Restricted in ability to maneuver • *Vessel constrained by draft • Vessel engaged in fishing • Sailing vessels • Power driven vessels • Seaplanes • Wing-in-Ground Craft (WIG)
Part B-Steering and Sailing Rules (Rule 19) Section 3- Conduct of Vessels in restricted visibility
Rule 19: Vessels in Restricted Visibility • Applicable to vessels not in sight of one another when operating in or near an area of restricted visibility • Every vessel shall proceed at a safe speed consistent with visibility conditions • A power driven vessel shall have her engines ready for immediate maneuvering
Rule 19: Vessels in Restricted Visibility • If a vessel detects another vessel by radar alone, it shall: • Determine if a close quarters situation is developing and/or a risk of collision exists • Take avoiding action early • The following should be AVOIDED • Turn to port for a vessel forward of the beam • An alteration of course toward a vessel abeam or abaft of beam
Rule 19: Vessels in Restricted Visibility • If a vessel hears a fog signal of another vessel forward of her beam or a vessel cannot avoid a close quarters situation with another vessel forward of the beam, it shall: • Reduce her speed to bare steerageway • If necessary take all way off • Navigate with extreme caution until the risk of collision has passed
Rule 20: Application of Lights and Day shapes • Lights shall be displayed: • From sunset to sunrise • In conditions of restricted visibility • In all other circumstances when deemed appropriate • Purpose of Lights and Day shapes: • Helps determine stand on/give way status. • Indicates the occupation of certain vessels. • Aids in the determination of target angle and course.
Rule 21:DefinitionsRule 22: Visibility of Lights Min Ranges TYPE OF LIGHT COLOR ARC 50M+ 12-50M Masthead white 225 6 nm 5 nm Sidelight red/green 112.5 3 nm 2 nm Sternlight white 135 3 nm 2 nm Towing yellow 135 3 nm 2 nm All around various 360 3 nm 2 nm • Flashing - A light flashing at regular intervals at a frequency of 120 flashes or more per minute. • Special Flashing – A yellow light flashing at regular intervals at a frequency of 50-70 flashes per minute, placed forward and with an arc of 180-225 degrees.
Rule 21:Definitions Masthead light Sternlight Sidelight
Rule 23: Power-Driven Vessels • A power-driven vessel underway shall exhibit: • (i) a masthead light forward; (225.0 Degrees) • (ii) a second masthead light abaft of and higher than the forward one; except that a vessel of less than 50 meters in length shall not be obliged to exhibit such light but may do so; • (iii) sidelights; and • (iv) a sternlight.
Rule 23: Power-Driven Vessels • Air-cushion vessel operating in the non-displacement mode exhibits an all-round flashing yellow light
Rule 23: Power-Driven Vessels • In addition to lights prescribed in this rule – a high intensity, all around flashing red light
Rule 24: Towing and Pushing • TOWING ASTERN • Tow < 200 m: Two masthead lights in vertical line • Tow > 200 m: Three masthead lights in vertical line • All ships towing display a yellow towing light in a vertical line above the sternlight • COMPOSITE UNITS • Rigidly connected composite units are treated as a single power driven vessel • PUSHING AHEAD/ALONGSIDE • Two masthead lights in vertical line • INLAND-Two towing lights vice a towing light and sternlight
Rule 24: Towing and Pushing • Lighting the Tow • A vessel being towed shall display sidelights and sternlight • A vessel being pushed ahead shall display sidelights and (INLAND) a special flashing light • A vessel towed alongside shall exhibit sidelights and sternlight and (INLAND) a special flashing light
Rule 24: Towing and Pushing • Lighting the Tow • Partially submerged object being towed shall display: • One all-round white light at the aft end and one at the forward end. • Diamond shape at or near the end (if >200m tow, diamond also at the front INTERNATIONAL) • Additional lights shall be used so that the distance between any two lights is not greater than 100m. • If the object is greater than 25m wide, two (four for INLAND) all-round white lights shall be used to mark the extremities