3 Organizational Culture, Socialization, & Mentoring Chapter Organizational Culture: Definition and Context Dynamics of Organizational Culture Developing High-Performance Cultures The Organizational Socialization Process Embedding Organizational Culture through Mentoring Study pgs 76-84 (skip Outcomes Associated with Org Culture), pick up at pg 87 (Developing an Adaptive Culture) through pg 97.
Ch. 3 Learning Objectives • Define organizational culture and discuss its three layers. • Discuss the difference between espoused and enacted values. • Describe the functions of an organization’s culture. • Discuss the three general types of organizational culture and their associated normative beliefs. • Discuss the process of developing an adaptive culture. • Summarize ways organizations embed their cultures. • Describe the three phases of organizational socialization. • Discuss the various tactics used to socialize employees.
Organizational Culture • Shared values and beliefs that underlie a company’s identity
Antecedents Group & Social Processes Organizational Structure & Practices • Founder’s values • Industry & business • environment • National culture • Senior leaders’ • vision and behavior Organizational Culture • Socialization • Mentoring • Decision • making • Group • dynamics • Communication • Influence & • empowerment • Leadership • Reward systems • Organizational • design • Observable artifacts • Espoused values • Basic assumptions • Collective Attitudes & Behavior • Work attitudes • Job satisfaction • Motivation • Organizational Outcomes • Effectiveness • Innovation & • stress Figure 3-1 Understanding Organizational Culture
Layers of Organizational Culture • Observable artifacts
Layers of Organizational Culture Values – enduring belief in a mode of conduct or goal • There’s a difference between espoused and enacted values! “The Enron organization exists to benefit everyone who is touched by our business.”
Layers of Organizational Culture • Basic assumptions • unobservable and represent the core of organizational culture
Table 3-1 Three Types of Cultures • Constructive Culture • Passive-defensive • Aggressive-defensive *Each type associated with a different set of normative beliefs(expectations of how others should work and interact).
Organizational Characteristics Normative Beliefs Goal and achievement oriented Achievement Self-actualizing Value self-development and creativity Participative, employeecentered, and supportive Humanistic-encouraging High priority on constructive interpersonal relationships, and focus on work group satisfaction Affiliative Table 3-1 Three Types of Cultures 1. Constructive Cultureencourages interaction for growth reasons
Organizational Characteristics Normative Beliefs Avoid conflict, strive to be liked by others, and approval oriented Approval Rigid, bureaucratic, and people follow the rules Conventional Dependent Nonparticipative, centralized decision making, and employees do what they are told Negative reward system and Defensive avoid accountability Avoidance Table 3-1 Passive Defensive Culture 2. Passive Defensive Cultureemployees must interact with others in ways that do not threaten job security
Organizational Characteristics Normative Beliefs Confrontation and negativism rewarded Oppositional Power Nonparticipative, take charge of Defensive subordinates, and responsive to superiors Winning is values and a win-lose approach is used Competitive Perfectionistic, persistent, and hard working Perfectionistic Aggressive-Defensive Culture Table 3-1 3. Aggressive-Defensive Cultureforcefully protect job status and security
Paying attention? • An organization that endorses the normative belief that employees must interact in ways that do not threaten their own job security has a _______________ culture. • Constructive • Passive-defensive • Aggressive-defensive
Embedding Culture in Organizations • Formal statements or organizational philosophy • MSU’s philosophy • Design of physical space • Orgs are becoming flatter • Slogans, language, sayings • “Quality is Job 1” • “Let’s build something together” • “I’m lovin’ it” • “We try harder” • “You are now free to move about the country”
Anticipatory socialization • Anticipating realities about the organization • Anticipating organization’s needs for one’s skills • Anticipating organization’s sensitivity Figure 3-4 Organizational Socialization Perceptual and Social Processes Phases *RJP’s very important in this phase! Here’s one.
Figure 3-4 Organizational Socialization Phases Perceptual and Social Processes • Encounter - values, skills, and attitudes • Managing lifestyle-versus-work conflicts • Managing intergroup role conflicts • Seeking role definition and clarity • Becoming familiar with task and group dynamics
Figure 3-4 Organizational Socialization Phases Perceptual and Social Processes • Change and acquisition - recruit masters skills and roles and adjusts to work group’s values and norms • Competing role demands are resolved • Critical tasks are mastered • Group norms and values are internalized
Phases • Anticipatory socialization • Encounter • Change and acquisition Figure 3-4 Organizational Socialization Outsider Socialized Insider • Affective Outcomes • Generally satisfied • Internally motivated to work • High job involvement • Behavioral Outcomes • Performs role assignments • Remains with organization • Spontaneously innovates and cooperates
Mentoring • Mentoringis the process of forming and maintaining developmental relationships between a mentor and a junior person
Functions of Mentoring • Career Functions • In what ways can mentoring assist in one’s career progression? • Psychological Functions • How can mentoring serve a psychological function?