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YEAH BABY!!!!!. PERSONALITY. GREAT MAN THEORY. Leaders and Followers fundamentally different Leaders possess a qualitatively different set of personality traits Diversity of successful leaders. PERSONALITY. Social Reputation - description & evaluation of person in the eyes of others
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GREAT MAN THEORY Leaders and Followers fundamentally different Leaders possess a qualitatively different set of personality traits Diversity of successful leaders
PERSONALITY Social Reputation - description & evaluation of person in the eyes of others Unseen, underlying structures that explain individual behavior
PERSONALITY TRAITS Dimensions of individual differences in tendencies to show consistent patterns of thoughts, feelings, and actions Weak Situations - ambiguous situations with no clear demand Strong Situations - situations with clearly specified rules, demands, or organizational policies. Strong Situations minimize effects of traits on behavior
FIVE FACTOR MODEL FFM BIG FIVE MODEL Allport & Odbert 1936 - 18,000 trait adjectives Cattell 1948 - 16 PF Tupes & Crystal 1960’s 5 Factors Costa and McCrae 1980’s/90’s
FIVE FACTOR MODEL FFM BIG FIVE MODEL Extraversion (Surgency) - Positive Emotions, Quantity of Interpersonal Neuroticism - Negative Emotions Openness - (Intellectance) Interest in Ideas, Novelty, Art, Culture Agreeableness - Quality of Interpersonal Relations Conscientiousness - (Dependability) Achievement Motivation, Resolve
FIVE FACTOR MODEL FFM BIG FIVE MODEL Assumptions Dimensions are orthogonal Dimensions are bi-polar Dimensions are normally distributed Personality is stable throughout life Personality is largely hereditary
FIVE FACTOR MODEL FFM ADVANTAGES Common Denominator Universally Applicable Across Cultures Comprehensive CRITICISMS More than 5 Factors Heterogeneity of the 5 Factors
PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT Typical not Maximal Performance Objective Personality Inventories - Subjects are asked to indicate the extent to which items (statements, adjectives, questions) are descriptive of themselves.
DARK SIDE TRAITS Irritating / counterproductive behavioral tendencies that interfere with a leader’s ability to form cohesive teams and cause followers to exert less effort toward goal accomplishment.
DARK SIDE TRAITS Argumentativeness Interpersonal Insensitivity Narcissism Fear of Failure Perfectionism Impulsivity
PERSONALITY & LEADERSHIP Extraversion Conscientiousness Agreeableness Emotional Stability All related to leadership success. Intelligence, Experience, Knowledge, Values out of the mix
PERSONALITY TYPES Types represent discrete categories Myers Briggs Type Inventory MBTI Derived from Carl Jung Four preference dimensions: Extraversion-Introversion Sensing-Intuition Thinking-Feeling Judging-Perceiving 16 Psychological Types
INTELLIGENCE A person’s all-around effectiveness in activities directed by thought faster learners more easily see connections better assumptions, deductions, connections better understand implications better problem solvers
INTELLIGENCE Intelligence testing Chinese civil service 1155 BC Alfred Binet / Louis Terman 1880’s-1900’s Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test - School decisions Army Alpha/Beta Tests - WWI Officers/Enlistees Fair, objective, and efficient, 1960’s - Behaviorism - all behavior is learned
INTELLIGENCE MAINSTREAM VIEWS General trait of mental capacity Intelligence can be measured Normal distribution 100 AVG, 130 97%ile High IQ advantageous IQ scores predict accurately. Not culturally biased Heritability - 0.4 to 0.8 Intelligence transfers across jobs and situations
3 VIEWS OF INTELLIGENCE UNITARY ABILITY Spearman g General ability to solve complex mental problems g - best single predictor of job performance Leaders with high g predicted to do well in learning and problem solving across diverse situations
3 VIEWS OF INTELLIGENCE MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES Gardner Linguistic, musical, spatial, logical/mathematical, bodily/kinesthetic, intrapersonal, and interpersonal. Little empirical, supportive evidence
3 VIEWS OF INTELLIGENCE TRIARCHIC THEORY OF INTELLIGENCE Sternberg Analytic Intelligence “g” Practical Intelligence “street smarts” knowing how things get done and how to do them Creative Intelligence “ability to produce novel and useful work”
3 VIEWS OF INTELLIGENCE TRIARCHIC THEORY OF INTELLIGENCE Practical Intelligence is based upon knowledge and experience. Thus it is domain specific. Practical intelligence useful in familiar situations. Analytical intelligence more important in novel situations.
ASSESSMENT Speed v. Power Tests Speed - timed tests. Smarter people solve problems more quickly Power - difficulty increases. Smarter people can solve more difficult problems. IQ Intelligence Quotient Relationship between intelligence and leadership - r = .3 to .5 Curvilinear relationship with effectiveness. Communication barriers
CREATIVITY Relatively little research < two tenths 1% Creativity = Divergent Thinking = one’s adeptness in making fresh observations and ideas. Creative Intelligence = developing both novel and useful solutions to problems. Creativity involves evaluation Creativity is specific to certain fields . Sternberg - r = .5 with g
CREATIVITY Tests of convergent thinking have one best answer. Tests of divergent thinking have many answers. Creativity often is periodic. Not entirely rational or conscious process.
CREATIVITY Synthetic ability - seeing things in novel ways Analytic intelligence - evaluate Practical intelligence - experiential base Innovative v, Adaptive Thinking Style Personality Intrinsic Motivation - interested in subject itself Environment - complex jobs; supportive, non-controlling supervisors
CREATIVITY Team environment size unimportant clear goals, mutual support, task focus organizational support - time, money
CREATIVITY Build an environment that supports creativity. Intrinsic motivation Evaluation discourages synthetic activity Don’t be judgmental too early Minimize turnover Clear goals Creeping Elegance - adding more and more features/parameters due to lack of clear goal
EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE Salovey & Mayer Bright people fail due to lack of interpersonal sensitivity A group of mental abilities that help people to recognize their own feelings and those of others. Four factors : empathy, utilization of feelings, handling relationships, and self-control Repackaging of personality traits