How Computers Work Unit 1, Module 2: PC Hardware Components - Part 1
4 Functions of a Computer • Input • Processing • Output • Storage
PC Hardware Components • Input and output devices: outside computer case • Processing and storage components: inside the case • Hardware devices require three elements to operate: • Method for CPU to communicate with it • Software to instruct and control it • Electricity to power it
Hardware Used for Input and Output • Ports • Physical connector either on the back or sometimes on the front of the computer case • The device uses a cable to connect to the port to send data to the computer
Input/Output Device • Keyboard ….. Input or Output Device? • Keyboard ….. Input Device • Primary Input Device • Enhanced Keyboards….102 Keys • Ergonomic Keyboards…to help prevent against Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.
Keyboard • Some keyboards come with mouse port directly attached to the keyboard • Electricity for the keyboard comes from the inside the computer case provided by the wires in the keyboard.
Input/Output Device • Mouse ….. Input Device • Pointing Device • Uses rotating ball or an optical sensor • One – three buttons
Output devices • Monitor (Most Common) • Visual device that displays the primary output of the computer • Has separate power supply • How are monitors Rated by manufactures? • Size • DPI • Resolution
Output devices • Printers • Produces output onto paper called hard copy. • Has a separate power supply • What are three most popular printers today. • Dot matrix • Ink Jet • Laser
Hardware Inside the Case • Motherboard (contains CPU, memory, etc.) • A floppy drive, hard drive, and CD-ROM drive (permanent storage) • Power supply with cords supplying electricity to all devices inside the case • Cables connecting devices to circuit boards and the motherboard continued…
Peripheral Devices • Peripheral Devices….devices that the CPU communicates with that are not located directly on the motherboard • These include…power supply, hard drive, CD-ROM, Floppy Drive • Expansion Cards….a peripheral device that is a circuit board connected to a expansion slot on the motherboard
The Motherboard • Largest, most important circuit board in the computer • Contains the CPU • All communications between CPU and other devices must pass through the motherboard • Also called the main board or system board
Ports on the Motherboard • Ports that appear outside the case: • Serial port: data is transferred serially (one bit at a time followed by the next bit) • Examples: serial mouse or external modem (9 Pin Male) • Parallel: transmits data in parallel, standard parallel ports allow data flow in one direction • Examples: often used by printer or scanner (25 Pin Female)
Ports on the Motherboard • Ports that appear outside the case: • Universal serial bus (USB): used by input and output devices such as keyboard, printers, scanners and mice. Much easier to manage and eliminated the need to manually resolve resource conflicts.
For processing: CPU Chip set that supports the CPU For temporary storage: RAM Cache memory Electrical system: Power supply connections For CPU communication with other devices: Traces Expansion slots System clock Programming and setup data: Flash ROM CMOS setup chip Major Components on All Motherboards
The CPU • Central Processing Unit (The microprocessor) • Performs most of actual data processing • CPU stores instructions and performs calculations • Each device needs method to communicate with the CPU • CPU might need to control it or pass data to it • The device might need a way to request a service of the CPU • CPU needs to access to software which tells it how control a device
The Chip Set • A group of microchips on the motherboard that control the flow of data and instructions from the CPU • Relieves CPU of some processing • Provides careful timing of activities to increase overall speed
Review • The 4 functions of computer are Input, Output, processing, storage • The major parts of a computer consists of ports, motherboard, CPU, and Chip set.