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Sexual Behavior

Sexual Behavior

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Sexual Behavior

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  1. Sexual Behavior

  2. Introduction to reproductive activities • Requires : • Processes of maturation • Stimulation

  3. Abilitation of reproductive behavior • Dependent on a wide range of factors : • neural mechanism • hormones, pheromones • and the sensory ceception of a variety of stimuli

  4. Sensory factors • Olfaction : • odor -- a stimulatory value in arousing the male sex drive • odorous substances are “pheromones” • “pheromone’’produced by the submaxillary gld, preputial fluid in the boar

  5. Sensory factors • Visual stimuli and photoperiodism : • visual recognition -- the secondary means of mutual identification • the length of each day -- determining breeding behavior

  6. Sensory factors • Photoperiodism operates in 2 principal ways : • long day breeder:exhibit their reproductive activities during the daily light period is long: horse, donkey • short day breeder:confine their breeding behavior -- a minimum amount of daily light:sheep, goat

  7. Sensory factors • Hormonal and pheromonal facilitation: • behavior depend on -- stimulation by estrogen (female) and androgen (male) • reproductive behavior associated with : courtship, mounting, and coital action (male) and courtship, soliciting and coital acceptance (female)

  8. Sensory factors • Hormonal and pheromonal facilitation: (cont) • “critical period (during epigenesis” -- determination of sexual behavior • sexual behavior display : result of the degree of hormone or other stimulation applied to elicit it

  9. Sensory factors • Seasonal +climatic breeding response : • the newborn is provided with enviroment favouring its survival to puberty • temperature effects : • ambient temperature -- difficult for animal to dissipate heat (hyperthermia) • change with climate - able to effect reproductive behavior

  10. Sensory factors • Inherent rhythm : • environmental factor -- only create the capacity for a rhythm which is endogenous >environment acting as a “zeitgeber” or “time-giver”

  11. Reproductive activities • Classified animal by seasonal influence : • seasonal breeding animal : horse, sheep, goat, donkey • non-seasonal breeding animal : dog, swine, cattle.

  12. Physiological bases of sexual behavior • Genetic sex : • determined at the moment of conception • Organizational perinatal hormonal influences • castrated dog at birth : underdeveloped external genitalia • show receptive behavior to other male when treated with estrogen as adult

  13. Physiological bases of sexual behavior • Organizational perinatal hormonal influences (cont) • puppies treated with androgen in utero and neonatally -- markedly alter anatomically (no vagina, small phalluses) • cattle + sheep : defeminezed by their neonatal androgen (feemartin)

  14. Physiological bases of sexual behavior • Activational : adult hormonal influence • hormones have a permissive role : require a certain level for normal behavior , higher not increase libido or receptivity • hormonal treatment : not cure a deficiency of sexual behavior • male sexual behavior--depend on the activational action of testosterone

  15. Physiological bases of sexual behavior • Social and Sexual Experience • total lack of experience, homosexual experience, overused for breeding : lead to sexual abnormalities • lack of socialization : dog reared without physical contact with other dog from age of 3 wks -- normal libido to estrous bitches but very poor at orientation • negative sexual experience

  16. Physiological bases of sexual behavior • Adult hormonal and anatomical status • ovarian hormones : result in an attraction to males and receptivity to male mounting • some species (cat, pig) : complete pattern of estrous behavior -- elicited by estrogen alone • other, sheep + dog, progesterone must be administered

  17. Physiological bases of sexual behavior • In ungulates, the behavioral action of estrogen -- facilitated by rapid preovulatory fall in progesterone, where in dogs a rise in progesterone is important • ovariectomy -- abolish estrous behavior in female • castration -- abolish sexual behavior in male • anatomical factors

  18. Physiological bases of sexual behavior • Attractiveness of potential mate • higher mammals -- the sexual partner are influenced by attractiveness as well as by their hormonal levels • the attractivity of estrous bitch’s urine -- depends on her hormonal state

  19. Physiological bases of sexual behavior • External environment • too many human spectors or slippery floor -- may inhibit sexual behavior • male generally are more influenced by the environment than female

  20. Estrous Cycle • Estrous cycle : • proestrus, estrus, metestrus, diestrus and anestrus • estrus :- state during which female seek and accept the male • when estrus :- behavioral change -- reducing in feeding, resting • behavioral features -- synchronized with various physiological changes of entire genital system

  21. Estrous Cycle • Estrous cycle : • health, nutrition and housing -- influential on estrus • features of estrus intensity • quiescent estrus • aberrances of estrus • onset of estrus • vocalization in estrus • duration of estrus • post-partum estrus

  22. Central Nervous System and Control of Sexual Behavior • Female • hypothalamic factor • GnRH in hypothalamus stimulate the release of FSH and LH from anterior pituitary gland • FSH -- induce follicular development • FSH + LH -- together stimulate estrogen + progesterone production by ovary

  23. Central Nervous System and Control of Sexual Behavior • Female • hypothalamic factor (cont) • most of estrous cycle, estrogen + progesterone maintain low levels of LH + FSH through a negative feedback action on hypothalamic pituitary axis • near proestrus, the situation is reversed : rising estrogen levels have positive feedback on LH secretion

  24. Central Nervous System and Control of Sexual Behavior • Female • hypothalamic factor (cont) • resulting in the LH serge -- cause ovulation

  25. 4.2

  26. Central Nervous System and Control of Sexual Behavior • Cyclical ovulation : • spontaneous ovulator : bitch, ewe, mare and sow • induced ovulators : cat, rabbit, camel • the seasonal nature of reproductive behavior -- due to central neural variation in responsiveness to gonadal hormones • olfactory influences and pheromone

  27. Central Nervous System and Control of Sexual Behavior • Male • hypothalamic factor • FSH stimulate spermatogenesis • inhibin -- negative feedback on FSH release • LH -- stimulates testosterone release

  28. Central Nervous System and Control of Sexual Behavior • Male (cont) • neocortex and amygdala • lesionin sensorimotor area of neocortex -- suppress copulatory performance • lesion of the amygdala or pyriform cortex -- produce hypersexuality • olfaction • important for identification of the estrous female

  29. Cattle • The Cow • puberty occur 4-24 months of age • estrous cycle is 18-24 days (21 days) • onset of estrus • more often evening and cease in morning • actual receptivity lasts 13-14 hr • an estrous cow -- increase motor activity, decrease food intake

  30. Cattle • The Cow • onset of estrus (cont) • increase investigative behavior : flehmen, sniffing, rubbing, licking • increase as does premounting behavior

  31. Cattle • The Cow • detection of estrus • more critical in dairy industry as artificial insemination • physical sign : copious vaginal discharge, vulva relaxation • traditionally, the bull is the best detector, teaser bull or vasectomized

  32. Cattle • The Cow • behavioral aberrations • silent heat • nymphomania : common in high production cow than beef breeds, show increase intense estrous behavior (persistently or at frequent or irregular intervals)

  33. Cattle • The Bull • courtship • starting late in the cow’s proestrus • graze beside the cow, guarding her • during proestrus, most female are attractive to male, but not receptive • ejaculation occur within second intromission

  34. Cattle • The Bull • courtship (cont) • bull are used for hand breeding or AI -- lack of the stimulatory effects of the prolonged courtship -- poor semen quality • sensory stimuli : need for elicit male sexual behavior • malnutrition : rarely effect

  35. Cattle • The Bull • behavioral aberrations • masturbation : pelvic thrust, back arched, partially erect penis • importence : loss of libido ( musculoskeletal disease, obesity, balanoposthitis, injury to penis, testicular atrophy

  36. Sheep and Goat • The Ewe and Doe • estrous cycle • short-day breeder : estrous cycle 14-20 day (~16 days) • estrous period 30-36 hr • tropical and subtropical : non-seasonal breeder

  37. Sheep and Goat • The Ewe and Doe • the Ram effect • continuous exposure to a ram trends to increase the incidence of estrus • courtship behavior • actively seek out the male and sniff the male’s body, genital and thrust her head against his flank

  38. Sheep and Goat • The Ewe and Doe • courtship behavior (cont) • increase motor activity : tail wagging • ram seeking behavior -- correlated with estrogen level • competition : agonistic behavior

  39. 12-10

  40. Sheep and Goat • The Ram and Buck • courtship behavior • spends a great deal of time sniffing the other’s genitalia, urine -- flehmen response • dominance effect • behavioral aberration

  41. Horse • The Mare • estrous cycle • long-day breeder : estrous cycle 20-23 days (~21 days) • sexual receptivity : 5-6 days • non-receptive mare: react to teaser’s advances by squealing, striking, kicking, moving away • full estrus : immobility, permitting the teaser to nibble her hump and wither

  42. 12-11

  43. Horse • The Mare • foal heat • following parturition : quite predictable • begins from 5-18 days (~9 days) after foaling

  44. Horse • The Mare • behavioral aberration • prolonged estrus (up to 90 days at the end of the breeding season) • split estrus (1-2 days of “shallow” estrus) • anestrus (physiological and behavioral anestrus)

  45. Horse • The Mare • behavioral aberration (cont) • psychic heat (estrus without the normal physiological correlates of estrus) • nymphomania : excessive sexual behavior • silent heat

  46. Horse • The Stallion • courtship behavior • vary with management practice • driving, herding, snaking with a distinctive head-down position (elicited by the presence of other stallions) • adequate period of sexual foreplay -- essential :- female is fully receptive

  47. Horse • The Stallion • sensory stimuli • visual + sensory stimuli :- vital to the display of sexual behavior • masturbation : normal behavior in stallion

  48. Horse • The Stallion • behavioral aberrations • common problem of sexual behavior in stallion • show sexual interest, not mount, or mount but not ejaculate • low or no libido • mount only when another specific present • injury • geldings that behave like stallion