Agriculture • Origins of agriculture • Hunters and gatherers • 1st agricultural revolution – domestication (10-12,000 years ago) plants, animals
C. Hearth areas 1. Vegetative Southeast Asia, West Africa South America 2. Seeds India / Fertile Crescent East China, Mesoamerica
II. Impact of domestication • Social • 1. Settlements • Social stratification • social evolution • 3. Writing • B. Economic • 1. Division of labor • Accumulation of material goods (wealth) • Wealth = need for security, army
Demographic • Population growth • Sanitation • Epidemics (proximity) • Diet • D. Environmental - • Deforestation • Desertification, salinization • More hours of labor
III. Second agricultural revolution III. Second agricultural revolution • III. Second agricultural revolution • When • Climate • C. Innovations- techniques, technologies • D. Hearth area, diffusion • E. Impact D New techniques New technologies C. Hearth area, diffusion D. Impact
IV. Third - "Green Revolution" A. When B. Innovations C. Diffusion C. Impact - Moral economy
V. Agriculture in LDCs A. Shifting agr (swidden, slash and burn) B. Pastoral nomadism • Intensive subsistence agr (rice) mulberry, fish, rice system D. Plantations
Labor Force in Agriculture, 2005 Fig. 10-3: A large proportion of workers in most LDCs are in agriculture, while only a small percentage of workers in MDCs are engaged in agriculture.
VI. Agr in MDCs • Mixed crop and livestock • Dairy farming C. Grain farming D. Livestock ranching
World Corn Production, 2005 Fig. 10-7: The U.S. accounts for about 40% of world corn (maize) production. China is the 2nd largest producer. Much of the corn in both countries is used for animal feed.
VII. Von Thunen Isolated State Model • distance and transport costs • Assumptions • Concentric zones • 1. • 2. • 3. • 4.
VII. Global food supply • A. Distribution • Actual v. relative scarcity • B. International policies • Agricultural monopolies • Biofuels • Political instability • Urbanization • Environmental issues • D. Local instability
Undernourished Proportion Fig. 10-16: The proportion of under-nourished population has declined in most LDCs, but is much higher in sub-Saharan Africa than in other areas of the world.
Farmland Loss in Maryland Fig. 10-1.1: Overlaps of soil quality, environmental & cultural features, and population growth may show areas of greatest threat of farmland loss in Maryland.