Wilsonian Progressivism At Home And Abroad Chapter 29
The Emergence Of Woodrow Wilson • Democrats were thrilled about Republican split. • Dems nominate Woodrow Wilson, a militant progressive. • President of Princeton, instituted sweeping educational reforms • Governor of New Jersey; ignored party bosses. Progressive. Very Popular
Woodrow Wilson • Eloquent and somewhat of a zealot. • Strong moral streak; unwilling to compromise matters of principle. • Appealed to the people over the heads of the bosses and legislature. • In 1912 Democrats nominated him on the 46th ballot when Bryan swings his support to Wilson. • “New Freedom”.
The Bull Moose Campaign • Roosevelt not ready to give up the fight. • New Progressive Party nominates him as their candidate. • Roosevelt and Taft rhetoric.
TR’s New Nationalism Attitude toward government regulation? Attitude toward trusts? favored women’s suffrage Attitude toward social welfare programs. Wilson’s New Freedom. Attitude toward government regulation? Attitude toward trusts? Attitude toward social welfare programs Teddy v. Wilson Which parties would they fit in today?
Meaning of Wilson’s Win? • Wilson wins with 41%. • Wilson gets fewer votes than Byran in any of his three defeats. • Taft-TR combined had 1.2 Million more votes • Progressives (Wilson and Roosevelt) together got far more votes than Taft. • Thus, Progressivism was the winner. • Wilson wins because Republicans split the vote
Woodrow Wilson: A Minority President • Republicans minority in Congress and out of the White House for only the second time since before the Civil War. • Why TR loses. • Socialist Eugene Debs. • Taft after the White House.
Wilson: The Idealist In Politics • Wilson second democratic president since 1861. • First southerner in the White House since Taylor. • Racist; Jeffersonian • Son of a Presbyterian Minister; fervent piety and a stark view of good and bad that makes it hard for him to compromise. He is rigid. • Moving orator, but cold personally. • Student of government; professor of political science. Believed in strong president. • Idealist • Intellectual
Wilson’s Defects • Cold and austere • Lacked the common touch; not good with humans individually. • Intellectually arrogant. • Morally righteous. Rigid and uncompromising • Stubborn • Racist
Wilson Tackles The Tariff • Triple wall of privilege • Called a special session of congress. Personal State of the Union address. • The house passed the Underwood Tariff Bill. • goal. • Senate attempts to gut it. • What does Wilson do? • What happens to it? • Graduated income tax under the authority of the 16th Amendment
Wilson Battles The Bankers • US financial system is antiquated. • Most serious problem is the inelasticity of the currency • money reserves heavily concentrated in NY and a few other large cities • could not be mobilized easily to places under financial stress • The republicans favored a Third Bank of the United States with 15 branches. • Wilson opted for a decentralized bank in federal hands. Why?
Federal Reserve Act • Federal Reserve Act: most important piece of economic legislation between the Civil War and the New Deal. • Federal Reserve Board • How organized, managed and owned • Empowered to issue federal reserve notes backed by commercial paper • Purpose?
The President Tames The Trusts • Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914 • Clayton Anti-Trust Act of 1914 • Strengthened Sherman Anti-Trust Act by lengthening the list of unfair trade practices. • labor and agriculture. • Provisions on strikes and picketing
Wilson At High Tide • Federal Farm Loan Act of 1916 • Warehouse Act of 1916 • Highway Construction • Ag extension work in state colleges • La Follette Seamen’s Act • Workingmen’s Compensation Act of 1916 • Restriction on child labor on products in interstate commerce • Adamson Act of 1916
Wilson’s Blind Spot • Wilson’s one failure in broadening the rights of the downtrodden was Blacks. • He increased segregation in the Civil Service and generally had a very blind eye—even a hostile eye—toward concerns of blacks regarding civil rights. • Proclaimed Birth of a Nation an important insight into history.
New Directions In Foreign Policy • Wilson’s had a much different view of foreign policy than either Roosevelt or Taft. • Attitude toward TR’s big-stickism and American imperialism. • Attitude toward dollar diplomacy. • Wilson looked at foreign policy issues through the lens of moralism. • What was the thesis of Wilsonian foreign policy. • Ironically, he intervened in foreign countries MORE than had Roosevelt of Taft.
Wilson Foreign Policy • Jones Act of 1916: What did it do for the Philippines? • Wilson continued republican policy of intervening in Caribbean affairs. • Sent the Marines into Haiti in 1915 • Same year sent marines into the Dominican Republic to quell riots. • Why was Caribbean increasingly important to US? • Purchases the Virgin Islands in the West Indies from Denmark in 1917
Moralistic Diplomacy In Mexico • Huerta becomes president. Wilson refuses to recognize him. Why? • Carranza and Pancho Villa. • Tampico dispute • US seizure of Vera Cruz. Germans • Carranza v. Villa • Columbus, NM raid
US Invasion of Mexico • Wilson and America are outraged. • He sends General Pershing across the border to capture Villa. • Pershing chases Villa across northern Mexico but can’t find him. • Mexicans love seeing the inept Americans floundering around in the desert. • Wilson withdraws in 1917 as war for America looms in Europe
Road to WWI • Serb patriot killed Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of the Austria-Hungary “empire” in Serajevo in 1914. • Austrians blame Serbia. Backed by Germany, send stern ultimatum to Serbia • Serbia backed by Russia, mobilizes, menacing Germany on the east. • France mobilizes on Germany’s other side. • Germans strike at France through Belgium. • England enters the war against Germans. • Japan eventually comes in against Germany, as well. • Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria • Allies: France, Russia, Britain, Japan.
A Precarious Neutrality • Americans had no desire to get involved. • Wilson neutrality proclamation • Trade with belligerents allowed? • Impact on US economy?
A Precarious Neutrality • US population overwhelmingly in support of allies and staying out of the war. • Reasons citizens favored allies? • Wilson saw himself as the neutral arbitrator above the fray and hoped to be called upon to negotiate a peace. • He calls for “peace without victory”.
America Earns Blood Money • Orders from European nations quickly snap us out of recession and starts a business boom. • US banks provide a great deal of financing to the allies. • International law on trade with combatants • Shipping causes strain with combatants. • US trade is a much greater benefit to Allies than Axis. Why? • British Blockade
U-Boats • Feb. 1915 German U-Boat war around the British Isles. • Sank merchant ships headed to England without warning. • German actions violate international law. • How? • Why does Germany do it? • What did Germans pledge? • In the early months of 1915 German U-boats sink about 90 ships.
Lusitania • May 1915 Germans sink the British passenger liner the Lusitania. • 1198 killed including 128 Americans. • It was secretly carrying munitions in cargo compartment • US public outraged.
Sussex Pledge • Americans on the east coast started drumming for war. But Midwest is very isolationist. • Wilson does not want war. Why? • TR tried to push Wilson into the war. • Wilson’s warning to Germany. • German Sussex Pledge • US nevertheless at the brink of war. Why?
Wilson Wins Reelection In 1916 • Wilson faced a tough battle in 1916. • Progressive renominate TR, but he refuses to run. • Republicans nominate Charles Evans Hughes. • Hughes is a poor candidate who tailors his rhetoric concerning the war depending on his audience. • Impact of TR rhetoric • Wilson runs on the slogan, “He kept us out of war.” • Wilson wins narrowly