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1. A spherical air bubble originating from a scuba diver at a depth of 18.0 m has a diameter of 1.0 cm. Assuming constant temperature, what will be the diameter of the bubble when it reaches the surface? • 0.7 cm • 1.0 cm • 1.4 cm • 1.7 cm

2. As a copper wire is heated, its length increases by 0.1%. What is the change of the temperature of the wire? (aCu = 16.6 x 10 -6°C -1) • 120.4 °C • 60.2 °C • 30.1 °C • 6.0 °C

3. A tank with a volume of 0.15 m3 contains 27°C helium gas at a pressure of 100 ATM. How many balloons can be blown up if each filled balloon is a sphere 30 cm in diameter at 27°C and absolute pressure of 1.2 ATM? • 963 balloons • 884 balloons • 776 balloons • 598 balloons

4. At 20°C an aluminum ring has an inner diameter of 5 cm, and a brass rod has a diameter of 5.05 cm. To what temperature must the aluminum ring be heated to just slip over the brass rod? (a AI = 2.4 x 10-5 / °C, abrass = 1.9 x 10-5/ °C) • 111 °C • 236 °C • 384 °C • 437 °C

5. Forty-four grams of dry ice (solid CO2 ) is placed into a 2-liter container and the top is sealed. When the dry ice turns to gas at room temperature (20° C), what is the pressure increase in the 2-liter container? (1 mole of CO2 is 44 grams) • 6 ATM • 12 ATM • 18 ATM • 2 ATM

6. The mass of a hot air balloon and its cargo (not including the air inside) is 200 kg. The air outside is at a temperature of 10° C and a pressure of 1 ATM = 105 N/m2 . The volume of the balloon is 400 m3 . To what temperature must the air in the balloon be heated before the balloon will lift off? (Air density at 10 °C is 1.25 kg/m3 ) • 37 °C • 69 °C • 99 °C • 200 °C

7. 9 grams of water is placed into a 2 liter pressure cooker and heated to 500° C. What is the pressure inside the container? (R = 0.082 liter-ATM/mole- ° K) • 7.9 ATM • 15.8 ATM • 23.7 ATM • 31.6 ATM

8. Estimate the volume of a helium-filled balloon at STP if it is to lift a payload of 500 kg. The density of air is 1.29 kg/m3 and helium has a density of 0.178 kg/m3 . • 4406 m3 • 932 m3 • 450 m3 • 225 m3

9. Suppose the ends of a 20 m long steel beam are rigidly clamped at 0° C to prevent expansion. The rail has a cross-sectional area of 30 cm2 . What force does the beam exert when it is heated to 40° C? (asteel = 1.1 x 10-5 / ?C, Ysteel = 2 x 1011 N/m2 ) • 2.64 x 105 N • 5.61 x 104 N • 1.32 x 103 N • 6.50 x 102 N

10. Carbon dioxide forms into a solid (dry ice) at approximately -157° F. What temperature, in degrees Celsius, does this correspond to? • -157°C • - 93°C • -121°C • -105°C

11. How many moles of air must escape from a 10 m x 8 m x 5 m room when the temperature is raised from 0°C to 20°C? Assume the pressure remains unchanged while the room is heated. • 1218 moles • 1011 moles • 746 moles • 373 moles

12. A long steel beam has a length of 25 m on a cold day when the temperature is 0°C. What is the length of the beam on a hot day when T = 40°C? (asteel = 1.1 x 10 -5 / °C) • 25.00044 m • 25.0044 m • 25.011 m • 25.044 m

13. Evaporation cools the liquid that is left behind because the molecules that leave the liquid during evaporation • have kinetic energy. • have greater than average speed. • have broken the bonds that held them in the liquid. • create vapor pressure.

14. If there is a closed room which contains warm, moist air, increasing the temperature of the room must • increase the relative humidity even if the absolute humidity stays constant. • keep the relative humidity constant if the absolute humidity stays constant. • decrease the relative humidity if the absolute humidity stays constant. • decrease the absolute humidity.

15. Consider two containers that have the same volume and temperature. Inside one container is "dry" air--a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen. In the second container there is "moist" air. The "moist" air has the same ratio of nitrogen to oxygen molecules, but it also has some water vapor in the container. According to the ideal gas law, if the pressures are equal, the weight of the gas inside the first container will be • lighter than the gas inside the second container. • equal to the weight of the gas in the second container. • heavier than the gas inside the second container. • all these are incorrect because the pressures cannot be equal.

16. Between 0° and 4°C, the volume coefficient of expansion for water • is positive. • is zero. • is becoming less dense. • is negative.

17. For an ideal gas of a given mass, if the pressure remains the same and the volume increases, • the average kinetic energy of the molecules decreases. • the average kinetic energy of the molecules stays the same. • the average kinetic energy of the molecules increases. • There is not enough information to determine the change in kinetic energy of the molecules.

18. A steel sphere sits on top of an aluminum ring. The steel sphere (a = 1.1 x 10-5 / °C) has a diameter of 4.000 cm at 0°C. The aluminum ring (a = 2.4 x 10-5/°C) has an inside diameter of 3.994 cm at 0°C. At what temperature will the sphere fall through the ring? • 461.5°C • 208.0°C • 115.7°C • 57.7°C

19. Suppose for a brief moment that the gas molecules hitting a wall stuck to the wall instead of bouncing off the wall. How would the pressure on the wall be affected during that brief time? • the pressure would be zero. • the pressure would be half as big. • the pressure would remain unchanged. • the pressure would be twice as big.

20. If the temperature of an ideal gas contained in a box is increased • the average velocity of the molecules in the box will be increased. • the average speed of the molecules in the box will be increased. • the distance between molecules in the box will be increased. • all of these will happen.

21. At what temperature is the same numerical value obtained regardless of whether the measurement is made in degrees Celsius or in degrees Fahrenheit? • -40°C • 0°C • 40°C • -72°C

22. A helium-filled weather balloon has a 0.9 m radius at lift off where air pressure is 1 ATM and the temperature is 298 K. When airborne, the temperature is 210 K, and its radius expands to 3.0 m. What is the pressure at the airborne location? • 0.5 ATM • 0.013 ATM • 0.019 ATM • 0.38 ATM

23. The normal body temperature for humans is 98.6°F. What is this temperature in degrees Kelvin? • 296 • 310 • 393 • 273

24. The thermal expansion of a solid is caused by • the breaking of bonds between atoms. • increasing the amplitude of the atoms vibration. • increasing the distance between equilibrium positions for the vibrating atoms. • all of these.

25. What is the resulting pressure when one mole of air at one atmosphere of pressure and 15°C is heated at constant volume to 125°C? • 1.38 ATM • 1.76 ATM • 2.14 ATM • 1.00 ATM

26. One way to cool a gas is to let it expand. If a gas under 50 ATM of pressure at 25°C is allowed to expand to 15 times its original volume, it reaches 1 ATM pressure. What is its new temperature? • 177°C • 0°C • 200.7 K • 89.4 K

27. A pressure of 10-7 mm of Hg is achieved in a vacuum system. How many gas molecules are present per liter volume if the temperature is 293 K? (760 mm of Hg = 1 ATM, R = 0.081 liter-ATM/mole-K and NA = 6.02 x 1023 ) • 16 x 1018 • 4.7 x 1016 • 3.3 x 1012 • 3.4 x 109

28. What is the root mean square velocity of chlorine gas molecules at a temperature of 320 K? (R = 8.31 x 103 J/kmole-K, NA = 6.02 x 1023 , and the molecular mass of CI2 = 71) • 1.7 x 102 m/s • 3.3 x 102 m/s • 0.8 x 104 m/s • 1.1 x 105 m/s

29. Boltzmann's constant, kB , may be derived as a function of R, the universal gas constant, and NA , Avogadro's number. Which of the choices below expresses the value of kB? • NA R2 • NA R • R/NA • NA /R

30. How many atoms are present in a sample of pure iron with a mass of 300 grams? (The atomic mass of iron = 56 and NA = 6.02 x 1023 ) • 1.8 x 1019 • 6.7 x 1022 • 1.6 x 1028 • 3.2 x 1024

31. Two moles of nitrogen gas are contained in an enclosed cylinder with a movable piston. If the gas temperature is 298 K, and the pressure is 1.01 x 106 N/m2 , what is the volume? (R = 8.31 J/mole-K) • 9.8 x 10-3 M3 • 4.9 x 10-3 M3 • 17.3 x 10-3 M3 • 8.3 x 10-3 M3

32. An automobile gas tank is filled to its capacity of 15 gallons with the gasoline at an initial temperature of 10°C. The automobile is parked in the sun causing the gasoline's temperature to rise to 60°C. If the coefficient of volume expansion for gasoline is 9.6 x 10-4 / °C, what volume runs out the overflow tube? • 1.74 gallons • 1.18 gallons • 0.72 gallons • 0.30 gallons

33. What happens to a given volume of water when heated from 0°C to 4°C? • density increases • density decreases • density remains constant • vaporizes

34. What happens to a given volume of water when its temperature is reduced from 8°C to 4°C? • density increases • density decreases • density remains constant • vaporizes

35. A brass cube, 10 cm on a side, is raised in temperature by 200°C. The coefficient of volume expansion of brass is 57 x 10-6 / °C. By what percentage is any one of the 10 cm edges increased in length? • 4% • 2.8% • 0.38% • 0.29%

36. Two moles of nitrogen gas are contained in an enclosed cylinder with a movable piston. If the molecular mass of nitrogen is 28, how many grams of nitrogen are present? • 0.14 • 56 • 42 • 112

37. With volume and molar quantity held constant, by what factor does the absolute temperature change for an ideal gas when the pressure is five times bigger? • 0.2 • 1.0 • 5.0 • 25.0

38. With molar quantity and temperature held constant, by what factor does the pressure of an ideal gas change when the volume is five times bigger? • 0.2 • 1.0 • 5.0 • 25.0

39. What happens to the size of the inside diameter of a hollow metal sphere as its temperature increases? • increases • decreases • remains constant • becomes elliptical

40. A substance registers a temperature change from 20°C to 40°C. This corresponds to what incremental change in Fahrenheit degrees? • 20 • 40 • 36 • 313

41. A substance registers a temperature change from 20°C to 40°C. What would the same incremental change be when registered in Kelvins? • 20 • 40 • 36 • 313

42. Which of the choices below expresses the temperature, 88°F, in Celsius degrees? • 31 • 49 • 56 • 158

43. A brass cube, 10 cm on a side, is raised in temperature by 200°C. The coefficient of volume expansion of brass is 57 x 10-6 / °C. By what percentage does its volume increase? • 12% • 2.8% • 1.14% • 0.86%

44. What is the temperature of a system in thermal equilibrium with another system made up of ice and water at one atmosphere of pressure? • 0°F • 273 K • 0 K • 100°C

45. Which one of the choices below best describes a system made up of ice, water and steam existing together? • absolute zero • triple point • ice point • steam point

46. What is the temperature of a system in thermal equilibrium with another system made up of water and steam at one atmosphere of pressure? • 0°F • 273 K • 0 K • 100°C

47. The absolute temperature of an ideal gas is directly proportional to which of the following properties, when taken as an average, of the molecules of that gas? • speed • momentum • mass • kinetic energy

48. The zeroth law of thermodynamics pertains to what relational condition that may exist between two systems? • zero net forces • zero velocities • zero temperature • thermal equilibrium

49. Which of the choices below best expresses the value for the coefficient of volume expansion, beta for given material as a function of its corresponding coefficient of linear expansion, alpha? • beta = alpha3 • beta = 3 x alpha • beta = alpha2 • beta = 2 x alpha

50. An ideal gas is confined to a container with an adjustable volume. If the number of moles and temperature are held constant, by what factor will the volume change when the pressure is tripled? • 1/9 • 0.33 • 3.0 • 9.0