Fundamental Flight Maneuvers • Straight and Level • Turns • Climbs • Descents
Four Aerodynamic Forces • Lift • Thrust • Drag • Weight • When are they in equilibrium?
Four Aerodynamic Forces • In steady-state or unaccelerated straight and level flight • What happens when you initiate a climb?
Four Aerodynamic Forces • Lift briefly exceeds weight. • Rearward component of the Lift adds to drag • Upward component of Thrust is called the Lift of Thrust
Four Aerodynamic Forces • Once the climb is established, the forces are again balanced
Lift • Which of Newton’s laws of motion are used to describe lift?
Lift • Second law of motion says that a force results whenever a mass is accelerated F = ma • Third law states for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
Bernoulli’s Principle • As the velocity of a fluid increase, its internal pressure decreases • High pressure under the wing and lower pressure above the wing’s surface
Lift • In what direction does lift act? • Perpendicular to the relative wind • Drag acts parallel to the flight path in the same direction as the relative wind
Lift • Angle of incidence • Angle of attack • Washout
Lift Equation • L = CLV2r/2 S • If the angle of attack and other factors remain constant and airspeed is doubled lift will be four times greater
Controlling Lift • What are four ways commonly used to control lift?
Controlling Lift • Increase airspeed • Change the angle of attack • Change the shape of the airfoil • Change the total area of the wings
Angle of Attack • Directly controls the distribution of pressure acting on a wing. By changing the angle of attack, you can control the airplane’s lift, airspeed and drag.
Angle of Attack • Angle of attack at which a wing stalls remains constant regardless of weight, dynamic pressure, bank angle or pitch attitude.
Angle of Attack • When the angle of attack of a symmetrical airfoil is increased, the center of pressure will remain unaffected.
Angle of Attack • At high angle of attack, pressure increases below the wing, and the increase in lift is accompanied by an increase in induced drag.
Flaps • What are the four types of flaps found on general aviation aircraft?
Flaps • Plain • Split • Slotted • Fowler
Leading Edge Devices • Slot • Slats • Leading Edge Flaps
Drag • Induced drag is a by-product of lift and is greatly affected by changes of airspeed.
Wing Planform • Name several wing shapes and their advantages?
Wing Planform • Elliptical - Excellent load distribution for high-G maneuvering and low drag for high speeds • Rectangular - stall first at root, least expensive
Wing Planform • Tapered - Favorable stall characteristics with good load distribution, saves weight • Delta - supersonic flight
Wing Planform • How do you find the Aspect Ratio of an airplane?
Wing Planform • Found by dividing the wingspan by the average cord. • What is a typical aspect ratio for typical training aircraft? • Gliders?
Wing Planform • Gliders - 20 to 30 • Training Aircraft - 7 to 9
Wing Planform • What is sweep? • A line connecting the 25% cord points of all the wing ribs which is not perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the plane is said to be swept • The sweep can be forward but most are back
Wing Planform • What is a device that is used to block or diffuse wing tip vortices?
Wing Planform • Winglets • Winglets can increase fuel efficiency at high speeds at altitudes by as much as 16 to 26%
Ground Effect • Where is ground effect found?
Ground Effect • Within one wingspan of the ground • An airplane leaving ground effect will experience an increase in what kind of drag?
Ground Effect • Induced Drag • Induced Drag is only about half of its usual value when the wing is at 10% of its span above the ground
Drag • What kind of drags rate of increase is proportional to the square of the airspeed?
Drag • What kind of drags rate of increase is proportional to the square of the airspeed? • Parasite Drag • What kinds of drag make up parasite Drag
Drag • Form Drag - based on the shape of the plane, how well streamlined and amount of frontal area.
Drag • Interference Drag - created when the airflow around one part of the airplane interacts with the airflow around another. • Skin Friction Drag - surface friction
Total Drag • The sum of the induced drag and the parasite drag. • Total drag is lowest at the airspeed which produces the highest ratio of lift to drag L/Dmax
Total Drag • Best power-off glide range • Greatest Range
High Drag Devices • Spoilers • Speed Brakes
Spoilers • What are the advantages of using spoilers?
Spoilers • Rapid descent without reducing power, engine stays warm • Maintain normal descent speed • Help slow to landing gear extension speed • Descent rapidly through icing • Stay at high altitudes longer
Thrust • Opposes drag. If greater than drag, the airplane is accelerating • A pound of Thrust must be available for each pound of drag.
Thrust • Power is the rate at which work is done. It takes less power to do the same amount of work at a slower rate.
Propeller Efficiency • High angle of attack at root, low angle of attack at tip • Elliptical planform • High Aspect ratio