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Colonial America

Colonial America. Early Attempts. Vikings reach Canada – 1000AD Spanish Columbus 1492 Ponce de Leon reaches Florida 1513 St. Augustine 1565 British Roanoke 1580s Jamestown 1607. Recreated Norse Sod Longhouse. Why Britain colonized America. Land Pressures in Britain Enclosures

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Colonial America

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  1. Colonial America

  2. Early Attempts • Vikings reach Canada – 1000AD • Spanish • Columbus 1492 • Ponce de Leon reaches Florida 1513 • St. Augustine 1565 • British • Roanoke 1580s • Jamestown 1607

  3. Recreated Norse Sod Longhouse

  4. Why Britain colonized America • Land Pressures in Britain • Enclosures • Population Growth • Trading Companies • Mercantilism • Strengthen state through trade, resources • Competition with other empires (Spain, France)

  5. And also… • Religion • Freedom of Practice (Puritans) • Spreading Christianity

  6. Roanoke • Raleigh received Charter 1584 • Grenville arrives with settlers Spring 1585 • Left in August, 1585 • 75 men left behind, promised to return in next spring • He was late returning, so in June,1586, Drake (he was passing by) taxied colonists back to England • Grenville returns soon after, leaves men again • 1587, Grenville sent 117 more in under John White • Found 1 skeleton! • White’s daughter gave birth to Virginia Dare • George Howe is killed while crabbing • John White returned to England for help1587 • Did not return until 1590! (War, then pirating)

  7. Chartered Companies (Early 1600s) • London Company (Virginia) • Cape Fear, NC to Long Island • Plymouth Company (Pilgrims) • Chesapeake Bay to New Brunswick

  8. Jamestown & Colonial Virginia • Jamestown founded in 1607 by London Co. • Followed 30 years of failed efforts • Bad spot – powerful Indian tribes, swamps • By 1624 only 1,300 of first 8,500 colonists still alive

  9. Major Milestones in Virginia • Began to plant tobacco (1612) • First Africans arrive as labor (1619) • First representative assembly (1619) • Virginia Co. bankrupt, crown takes control (1624) • Population begins to grow; 8,000 by 1640

  10. Major Milestones in Virginia • Indian tribes and colonial government agree on line separating control along Blue Ridge Mountains (1644) • Colonial population continues to grow (16,000 by 1650, 40,000 by 1660) and colonists keep moving west • Tensions between colonists in east, west

  11. Colonial Massachusetts • Pilgrims land far north of Virginia in 1620 • Other Puritans follow – 1,000 in 1630 under Mass. Bay Co. • John Winthrop seeks “City Upon a Hill” (theocracy?)

  12. Pilgrims 1620 Puritans 1630 Jamestown 1607

  13. The Puritans of Massachusetts

  14. Origins of Puritanism • Reform movement in English Anglican Church, began around 1560 • Movement a response to view that: • Anglican Church structure too hierarchical • Religious practices too close to Catholicism

  15. Major Puritan Beliefs • Original Sin • Humans by nature sinful; they can only achieve grace through self-examination and self discipline. • Emphasis on Community • Community had right to make sure members adhered to community standards and expectations. • Predestination • Person born as one of the elect (will go to heaven) or not. Best evidence? Live life rightly.

  16. Evidence of a Life Lived Rightly • Public confession of an experience of conversion • Being a good member of the faith, following its moral codes • Being frugal, self reliant andhard-working • Ideally leads to wealth

  17. Politics in Puritan Massachusetts • Theocracy? Yes & No • Puritan men had influence in selecting church leaders • Puritan men had vote in selecting colony’s elected assembly • Emphasis on education, schools

  18. The end of Puritan control • As colony’s population grew, it also grew more diverse (more non-Puritans) • After 62 years, charter of 1692 gave all males the right to vote • However, Puritan cultural influence remains • Emphasis on hard work, democracy, education, ‘exceptional’ nature of society (City Upon a Hill)

  19. Diverse Colonies • Unlike Va. and Mass. most colonies “proprietorships” • Maryland – Founder Catholic but most colonists Protestants • New York diverse (English, Dutch, German, French, etc.)

  20. Diverse Colonies • Pennsylvania founded by Quaker, prospered from start, good relations with Indians • Georgia last established (1733), created as barrier to Spanish, home for poor of England

  21. Similarities across colonies • Most people work in agriculture (80%) • Representative assemblies take root • Less class-based than in England • More social mobility than in England • Land plentiful, laborers not

  22. Differences: North and South Southern Colonies •Good agricultural lands •Large-scale agriculture •Slavery extensive, expanding •Little manufacturing •Religion less important Northern Colonies •Not as bountiful •Small-scale agriculture •Slavery fades •Rifles, furniture, ships, lumber, fishing •Religion central

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