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Colonial America

Colonial America

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Colonial America

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  1. Colonial America

  2. Early Attempts • Vikings reach Canada – 1000AD • Spanish • Columbus 1492 • Ponce de Leon reaches Florida 1513 • St. Augustine 1565 • British • Roanoke 1580s • Jamestown 1607

  3. Recreated Norse Sod Longhouse

  4. Why Britain colonized America • Land Pressures in Britain • Enclosures • Population Growth • Trading Companies • Mercantilism • Strengthen state through trade, resources • Competition with other empires (Spain, France)

  5. And also… • Religion • Freedom of Practice (Puritans) • Spreading Christianity

  6. Roanoke • Raleigh received Charter 1584 • Grenville arrives with settlers Spring 1585 • Left in August, 1585 • 75 men left behind, promised to return in next spring • He was late returning, so in June,1586, Drake (he was passing by) taxied colonists back to England • Grenville returns soon after, leaves men again • 1587, Grenville sent 117 more in under John White • Found 1 skeleton! • White’s daughter gave birth to Virginia Dare • George Howe is killed while crabbing • John White returned to England for help1587 • Did not return until 1590! (War, then pirating)

  7. Chartered Companies (Early 1600s) • London Company (Virginia) • Cape Fear, NC to Long Island • Plymouth Company (Pilgrims) • Chesapeake Bay to New Brunswick

  8. Jamestown & Colonial Virginia • Jamestown founded in 1607 by London Co. • Followed 30 years of failed efforts • Bad spot – powerful Indian tribes, swamps • By 1624 only 1,300 of first 8,500 colonists still alive

  9. Major Milestones in Virginia • Began to plant tobacco (1612) • First Africans arrive as labor (1619) • First representative assembly (1619) • Virginia Co. bankrupt, crown takes control (1624) • Population begins to grow; 8,000 by 1640

  10. Major Milestones in Virginia • Indian tribes and colonial government agree on line separating control along Blue Ridge Mountains (1644) • Colonial population continues to grow (16,000 by 1650, 40,000 by 1660) and colonists keep moving west • Tensions between colonists in east, west

  11. Colonial Massachusetts • Pilgrims land far north of Virginia in 1620 • Other Puritans follow – 1,000 in 1630 under Mass. Bay Co. • John Winthrop seeks “City Upon a Hill” (theocracy?)

  12. Pilgrims 1620 Puritans 1630 Jamestown 1607

  13. The Puritans of Massachusetts

  14. Origins of Puritanism • Reform movement in English Anglican Church, began around 1560 • Movement a response to view that: • Anglican Church structure too hierarchical • Religious practices too close to Catholicism

  15. Major Puritan Beliefs • Original Sin • Humans by nature sinful; they can only achieve grace through self-examination and self discipline. • Emphasis on Community • Community had right to make sure members adhered to community standards and expectations. • Predestination • Person born as one of the elect (will go to heaven) or not. Best evidence? Live life rightly.

  16. Evidence of a Life Lived Rightly • Public confession of an experience of conversion • Being a good member of the faith, following its moral codes • Being frugal, self reliant andhard-working • Ideally leads to wealth

  17. Politics in Puritan Massachusetts • Theocracy? Yes & No • Puritan men had influence in selecting church leaders • Puritan men had vote in selecting colony’s elected assembly • Emphasis on education, schools

  18. The end of Puritan control • As colony’s population grew, it also grew more diverse (more non-Puritans) • After 62 years, charter of 1692 gave all males the right to vote • However, Puritan cultural influence remains • Emphasis on hard work, democracy, education, ‘exceptional’ nature of society (City Upon a Hill)

  19. Diverse Colonies • Unlike Va. and Mass. most colonies “proprietorships” • Maryland – Founder Catholic but most colonists Protestants • New York diverse (English, Dutch, German, French, etc.)

  20. Diverse Colonies • Pennsylvania founded by Quaker, prospered from start, good relations with Indians • Georgia last established (1733), created as barrier to Spanish, home for poor of England

  21. Similarities across colonies • Most people work in agriculture (80%) • Representative assemblies take root • Less class-based than in England • More social mobility than in England • Land plentiful, laborers not

  22. Differences: North and South Southern Colonies •Good agricultural lands •Large-scale agriculture •Slavery extensive, expanding •Little manufacturing •Religion less important Northern Colonies •Not as bountiful •Small-scale agriculture •Slavery fades •Rifles, furniture, ships, lumber, fishing •Religion central