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Network Performance Management

Network Performance Management

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Network Performance Management

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  1. Network Performance Management S. Keshav C/NRG (with Rosen Sharma, Andy Choi, Wilson Huang, Lili Qiu, Russell Schwager, Rachit Siamwalla, Jia Wang, and Yin Zhang)

  2. Motivation • Networks are increasing in breadth…. • greater density of connections • PCs come with built-in networking • ADSL and cable modems • wireless networking • as well as in depth • variety of qualities, policies, and media

  3. The current situation • Loss of productivity from • slow file access • web site disconnection • slow access to a web site • no one knows exactly why! • Greater breadth and depth => even more dependency on the network => even more problems

  4. Is QoS enough? • Lots of research in the area of QoS • RSVP, differential service etc. provide a good overall user experience, one stream at a time • Is QoS all there is to a good user experience? • An incorrect reservation  poor service for one stream • A misconfigured router  complete loss of service to one or more ports!

  5. Aha! • User experience is affected more by ‘mundane’ network management than by ‘exotic’ QoS research • This motivates our entire research effort

  6. Why networks fail • Link or router failure • Transient overload • Unanticipated increase in load • Misconfiguration Increasingly harder to detect

  7. Need Better Network Management • Current approaches • GUI-centric • lots of flashing lights, but no intelligence • Can detect failures but... • ad hoc capacity planning • ad hoc configuration • no way of testing other than “just try it!” • Can’t manage network performance

  8. Performance management Topology discovery Configure new hardware (simulation) Collect statistics (monitoring) Fix problems (AI and simulation) Identify problems (display and simulation)

  9. Discovery: Project Octopus Temporary Set Heuristic Permanent Set

  10. Techniques • DNS-ls • SNMP • Random probe • Traceroute • Directed broadcast ping

  11. Results • Have automatically discovered entire CS department topology • As well as entire Stanford topology (> 220 subnets) • Cornell topology is being discovered as we speak! • info being shared with CIT

  12. Monitoring • A PERL script uses SNMP and queries a router using various MIB entries. • The MIB entries are stored in an input file. • The values gathered from the router are stored in a file. • The script works on both UNIX and WinNT.

  13. Monitoring (contd.) • Other PERL scripts parse the data and convert it to other formats. • Currently supported formats: • HTML - The data is presented in a table format in HTML. • GNUPlot graphs - The data can be graphed or saved in pbm format

  14. A Case Study: CSGate2 • From 2/19/98 to 2/23/98, the router CSGate2 was probed every 5 minutes recording various statistics on the data coming into and going out of the router. Incoming bytes at CSgate2

  15. Display goals • We want to display multiple views • Views should be dynamic • Shoul allow expansion and contraction • Rapid creation of user interface • Reusability of GUI components

  16. Solution: Script Java • Component-based system • Reusable manageable components • Can build large manageable applications • Sharing over the web • Record and playback

  17. Architecture • Use JavaScript/Visual Basic as the scripting language • Use Java to write components • Create a adapter hierarchy for the current AWT components

  18. Objects HTML pages Java structures intelligence protection by namespace Data Model linearized data structures java  perl  javascript Script Java Communication Abstraction • multicast channels

  19. Advantages • Allows us to glue components using a scripting language, allowing rapid prototyping and development • New components can be easily integrated • For large applications, a lot of the complexity and chaos can be taken out of scripting

  20. Advantages(cont.) • JavaScript can be streamed from the server, allowing for presentations and sharing • Dynamic Html • layers are windows • these windows render html

  21. Storage goals • We need to store topology and monitoring results somewhere • Database: too structured and too much overhead • File system: not enough semantics • Idea: treat URL as a file system link and HTML tags as associated semantics

  22. WebFS • HTML tags allow arbitrary semantic abstractions • Manipulate these abstractions to present a virtualized file system • grep -headings *.html • sed ‘/<annot tag=foo>/jdbc(“tags.db”, “foo”)/’

  23. The magic bullet: simulation • Realistic simulation where networking subsystem interacts with other parts of kernel • Fast simulation for large networks ( > 1000 hosts) • Hide the abstraction of simulated network, same API as system calls

  24. machine gated msg Telnetd ping Kernel wrapper Kernel core FreeBSD kernel User Space gated traps  Telnetd ping Sockets Network Stack

  25. machine gated msg Telnetd ping Kernel wrapper Kernel core Simulated machine • Task based approach • a trap sends a message to kernel • an upper call is a message from kernel • All components of simulated machine live on same process Simulated link

  26. Capture network related system calls, file descriptor auto re-mapping. Virtual file system root Single-thread kernel, therefore no need for locking More on simulated machine

  27. Simulated network machine gated msg Telnetd ping Kernel core

  28. Integrating with real network • Use U-Net to interact with external device • Router has the illusion of being in a physical network • Test equipment before actual deployment Unet Physical Router

  29. Tradeoffs • Balance between realism and speed • Using FreeBSD as basis for realistic simulation • Using session level simulation to speed up • Ease of porting applications

  30. Open issues • Fault identification • Bayesian networks? • Ensemble of experts? • Other AI approaches? • How to do session-level simulation? • Configuring real systems • IP9000