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Personality: Chapter 11

Personality: Chapter 11

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Personality: Chapter 11

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  1. Personality: Chapter 11 Samuel R. Mathews, Ph.D. The Department of Psychology The University of West Florida

  2. Personality • “…the thread of consistency that runs through our lives (Cervone & Shoda, 1999)” cited in Zimbardo et al. (2006, pg. 444).

  3. Theoretical Approaches to Understanding Personality • Psychoanalytic • Unconscious forces and drives • Past experiences, particularly early attachments • Sigmund Freud

  4. Theoretical Approaches to Understanding Personality • Humanistic • Individual interpretations of experiences • Relationships with significant others • Carl Rogers

  5. Theoretical Approaches to Understanding Personality • Social Cognitive • Learning-based, particularly from significant role models through observational learning • Individual interpretations of experiences, particularly experiences involving social interactions • Perceptions of one’s own ability to affect change (perceived self efficacy) • Bandura

  6. Personality: State or Trait • State: relatively transient attribute of the individual • Trait: relatively stable and permanent attribute of the individual

  7. Personality: State or Trait • Temperament: early manifestation of personality • Linked to both genetic predisposition and environmental response to that disposition • Family of origin’s reactions can moderate impact even during early infancy • Some elements of state and trait theory in personality

  8. “Big Five” Traits • Openness to experience: Breadth, Complexity, and depth of an individual’s life (closed minded) • Conscientiousness : Impulse control, goal directed behavior (carelessness) • Extraversion: activity and energy level traits, sociability and emotional expressiveness. (introverted)

  9. “Big Five” Traits • Agreeableness: altruism, trust, modesty, prosocial attitudes. (negativity) • Neuroticism : emotional stability, anxiety, sadness, and irritability (unstable, anxious) • Assessment is frequently conducted with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI—2) with 10 Clinical Scales

  10. Alternative to Trait Theories • Problems—Trait theories portray personality as a static system rather than a system that reflects a true bio-psycho-social system capable of change

  11. Alternatives to Trait Theories • Social Cognitive Theory • Allows for flexibility within a wide range based on environmental forces and one’s temperament • Mischel’s Person-Situation Argument: • Personality Traits tend to surface and are consistent when situational cues are inconsistent or weak

  12. Cultural Issues and Personality • Individualism and Collectivism • One’s status within a culture (economic, sex, age) • Locus of control (sense that one is in control of outcomes) • Relationship between thoughts and feelings

  13. Personality • Personality is relatively stable but not unchangeable • Bio-psycho-social perspective provides the most far-reaching explanation