Non-SLG Not-for-Profit Organizations: SFAS 116 and 117 Approach - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Non-SLG Not-for-Profit Organizations: SFAS 116 and 117 Approach
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Non-SLG Not-for-Profit Organizations: SFAS 116 and 117 Approach

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  1. Non-SLG Not-for-Profit Organizations:SFAS 116 and 117 Approach Chapter 16

  2. Learning Objectives • Understand the sources of GAAP for nongovernment not-for-profit organizations • Explain basis of accounting and the financial statements required for nongovernment not-for-profit organizations • Distinguish between and among the three net asset classes • Understand the timing of recognition and the classification of revenues and expenses of nongovernment not-for-profit organizations

  3. Learning Objectives (continued) • Understand the reporting of restricted contributions and restricted investment income • Account for and report the satisfaction of donor-imposed temporary restrictions on the use of resources • Prepare journal entries for common transactions of nongovernmental not-for-profit organizations • Prepare nongovernment not-for-profit organization financial statements

  4. The Nonprofit GAAP Problem • Private sector (nongovernmental) nonprofit organizations (NPOs) look to the FASB for GAAP • Public sector (governmental) NPOs look to the GASB for GAAP Focus of this chapter is on nongovernmental NPOs

  5. Interested in two groups • Voluntary health and welfare organizations (VHWOs) • Other not-for-profit organizations (ONPOs) – which exclude • Health care organizations (Chapter 18) • Colleges & Universities (Chapter 17) • VHWOs

  6. Evolution of NPO GAAP • AICPA started playing role in mid-1960s • FASB assumes responsibility in 1979 – FASB #32 adopted AICPA Statements of Position (SOPs), audit guides, and accounting guides

  7. Primary Authoritative Guidance • FASB #116 – Accounting for Contributions Received and Contributions Made • FASB #117 – Financial Statements for Not-for-Profit Organizations • FASB #124 – Accounting for Certain Investments Held by Not-for-Profit Organizations • AICPA Audit and Accounting Guide, Not-for-Profit Organizations, adopts all this guidance

  8. Distinguishing Features of VHWOs • Purpose – to meet a community health, welfare, or other social service need • Voluntary nature – no fee is charged, or only a very small fee in proportion to the service provided is charged • Relationship to resource providers – not the primary recipients of services or benefits

  9. Examples of VHWOs • United Way • Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts • American Heart Association • YMCA and YWCA

  10. Cemetery organizations Civic organizations Fraternal organizations Libraries Museums Other cultural institutions Performing arts organizations Political parties Private and community foundations Private elementary and secondary schools Professional associations Religious organizations Research and scientific organizations Zoological and botanical societies Examples of ONPOs

  11. Classes of Net Assets x • Unrestricted Net Assets • Temporarily Restricted Net Assets • Permanently Restricted Net Assets

  12. Non-GAAP Accounting & Reporting Requirements • IRS requirement for annual filing of Form 990 • Donors and grantors may require special reports to ensure funding is properly spent • Fund accounting may be used for tracking large grants or because it has been used successfully in the past

  13. MFBA • Measurement focus in on economic resources • Basis of accounting is accrual

  14. Required Financial Statements • Statement of Financial Position (Balance Sheet) • Statement of Activities • Statement of Cash Flows

  15. Statement of Financial Position • No specific format required • Fund reporting not prohibited • Aggregated totals for assets, liabilities, and net assets is required, as is reporting the three classes of net assets • Some accounts do have specific requirements

  16. Investments • FASB #124 provides guidance • Investments initially recorded at cost (if donated, at fair value at time of gift) • At report date • Investments in debt and equity securities reported at fair value • Other investments reported at cost, lower of cost or market, or at market value • Change in fair value reported as unrestricted unless restricted by donor stipulation or law

  17. Pledges – Unconditional Promises to Give • Recognize receivable if pledges are unconditional promises to give • Does not have provisions that release donor based on future and uncertain event • Conditional promise may be unconditional if occurrence of event is remote • Revenue recognized for net amount expected to be collected within one year • Revenue for collections to be made in more than one year recognized at present value

  18. Pledges – Conditional Promises to Give • Not reported as receivables • Note disclosure only • Support from conditional promises to give recognized when conditions are met

  19. Fixed Assets • Recognized at cost (or fair value if donated) – use of estimates allowed but must be disclosed in the notes • Donated fixed assets reported as unrestricted unless temporarily restricted required • Depreciation expense recorded on fixed assets used in operations or in production of income • Assets held for sale not depreciated

  20. Collections • Defined as works of art, historical treasures, or similar assets that are • Held for public exhibition • Protected, cared for, and preserved • Subject to policy that requires proceeds from sale of items to acquire other items for collection • NPOs must capitalize works of art, historical treasures, or similar assets that do not meet above requirements

  21. Collections (continued) Accounting options for collections • Not capitalizing any collections • Capitalize collections after adopting FASB #116 but not those acquired prior to that date • Capitalize all collections regardless of when acquired

  22. Collections (continued) • Capitalized collections • Assets reported at fair value and as contributions • Increase appropriate net asset classification • Collections not capitalized are disclosed only in notes to financial statements

  23. Trusts and Similar Agreements • May be held by a third party • Should be recognized as assets and contributions unless third part has discretion to provide resources to others • If such discretion is allowed, recognize as assets and contributions when resources provided • Revocable trusts are treated as conditional promises

  24. Trusts and Similar Agreements (continued) • Irrevocable perpetual trusts established for sole benefit of NPO increase permanently restricted net assets • Term endowments increase temporarily restricted net assets

  25. Statement of Activities x • Revenues and gains reported by source • Expenses • Reported by function • Classified as either • Program services • Support services • Changes in classes of net assets reported separately

  26. Reporting Revenues & Expenses • Must be reported at gross • Result from ongoing major or central activities • Revenues reported in appropriate net asset category • All expenses reported in unrestricted net asset category

  27. Reporting Gains and Losses • May be reported at net or gross • Result from transactions that are considered peripheral or incidental to organization • Reported in appropriate net asset category

  28. Contributions • Significant source of revenue for most NPOs • Defined as: an unconditional transfer of cash or other assets to an entity or a settlement or cancellation of its liabilities in a voluntary nonreciprocal transfer by another entity acting other than as owner

  29. Key Features of Contributions • Unconditional – not subject to future and uncertain events that could require return of assets or reinstatement of liabilities • Nonreciprocal – nothing of significant value is given in return for the contribution • Voluntary • Not an ownership investment

  30. Recognizing Contribution Revenue • In period received or unconditionally promised • Must analyze grants, memberships dues, & sponsorships • Part may be contributions • Part may be exchange transaction • Reported in appropriate net asset category

  31. Options for “Use Restriction” Contributions • Report as temporarily restricted net assets – satisfaction of restrictions reported as decrease to temporarily restricted net assets and increase to unrestricted net assets • Report satisfied portions as changes in unrestricted net assets

  32. Still Another FASB Standard #136 – Transfers of Assets to a Not-for- Profit Organization or Charitable Trust that Raises or Holds Contributions for Others • Recognize revenues if holder has right to redirect use of assets to party other than designated beneficiary • If power not explicitly granted, liability recognized instead of revenue

  33. Pledges • Revenues recognized when unconditional pledge is received • Conditional pledges & transfers recognized as revenues when conditions are met • Unconditional pledges due in future years reported as restricted support unless donor specifies it is for current operations

  34. Membership Dues – can take many forms • Exchange revenues for which benefits or services are made available – revenue recognized over period that benefits are provided • Contributions – recognized as revenues when received • A little bit of both

  35. Special Fund-Raising Events • Revenues reported at gross unless event is incidental or peripheral • Options for reporting expense direct costs • Expense deduction from related revenue • Separate line in expense section • Gain reported if event is incidental or peripheral (expenses reported parenthetically)

  36. Investment Income and Gains/Losses Determined partly by the investment valuation method used • For most investments, changes in fair value, interest, and dividends are reported as changes in appropriate net asset category • Restricted income, gains, and losses reported as changes in temporarily restricted or permanently restricted net assets

  37. Donated Materials, Facilities, & Services • Materials • Contribution revenue when received • Expense recognized when materials used or sold • Donated services reported as contributions and assets or expenses if services created or nonfinancial assets enhanced

  38. Other criteria for recognizing donated services • Require specialized skills (accounting, medicine, plumbing), • Provided by individuals with those skills, and • Would typically have been purchased if they are not donated.

  39. Net Assets Released from Restrictions • Reported when donor restrictions on resource use are met • Reported as both an increase to unrestricted net assets (but are not revenues) and decrease to temporarily restricted net assets (but not as expenses)

  40. Overview for Restricted Contributions and Investment Income (646 – 647) • Illustration 16-3 provides comprehensive overview of reported restricted contributions and investment income • Meant to summarize much of chapter

  41. Expense Classifications • Program Services – relate directly to the primary missions of the organization • Supporting Services – not directly related to primary missions; include: • General administration • Membership development • Fund-raising • Both classifications classified by program or function

  42. Mailing lists Printing Mailing Personnel Occupancy Newspaper and other media advertising Costs of unsolicited merchandise sent to encourage contributions Fund-Raising Costs – Examples

  43. Fund-Raising Costs as Joint Activities Costs of joint activities must be reported as fund-raising expenses unless • The activity meets three conditions related to the purpose of the activity • The audience to whom the activity is addressed • Actions that the audience is asked to take

  44. Conditions Related to Purpose of Activity • At least one purpose of joint activity must be to accomplish some program function that is part of the NPO’s mission or to fulfill management & general responsibilities • Audience for the activity must not be selected based on ability or likelihood to make contributions • Activity must motivate the audience to take specific actions (other than making contributions) that support program goals or fulfill a management & general responsibility

  45. Statement of Cash Flows:Unique Aspects • Reporting contributions & investment earnings that are restricted for capital asset-related, endowment, or other long-term purposes as financing activities • Reporting changes in cash restricted for long-term purposes as investing activities • Reconciliation of the total changes in net assets from the statement of activities to the net cash flows from operating activities

  46. Statement of Functional Expenses • VHWOs must present statement; optional for ONPOs • Provides detail of expenses section of Statement of Activities by object class or type of expense

  47. Prior year donation (651) Entry is made because the implied (or expressed) time restriction has been met. Reclassification is reported as “Net assets released from restrictions”.

  48. Gifts for current and future years (651) 5,000 was for current year; 10,000 for next year. Restricted support account is used to record temporarily restricted contributions. This example is of a time restriction.

  49. Unrestricted Pledges (651) 50,000 restricted for next year; 200,000 designated to support current year operations; 10% of pledges expected to be uncollectible.

  50. Collections of pledges (651) 205,000 in pledges were collected; 18,000 were written off.