Overview Signage Prevention Training Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Anatomy of Accidents Hazard Analysis Safeguards Team Safety Transportation Abuse
General Safety • Comply with final inspection requirements as soon as possible to prevent accidents • Arena Safety/Operation • Essential personnel only • Stay behind barriers • Enter when authorized • Energize when approved • Pit Safety – Not just at competition • Eye and foot protection at a minimum • Assume you are at risk • Scan for hazards • Chemical Safety • Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
Prevention Overview System components must be designed, installed, and secured so that the hazards associated with stored energy are minimized. Adequate room must be provided for a robot's movement as well as for workers. There must be a means for controlling the release of stored energy in all the robotic systems and for shutting off power from outside the restricted envelope. A detailed risk assessment should be performed to ensure the safety of workers who operate, service and maintain the robotics system.
Control & Prevention • Eliminate EXPOSURE to the hazard if at all possible • If there is NO EXPOSURE there is NO RISK of injury • Minimize the hazard if it can’t be eliminated • Restrict Access to necessary personnel • Train/Educate those at risk • Personnel who program, operate, maintain, or repair robots or robot systems should receive adequate safety training and be able to demonstrate competency in performing their jobs safely. • Protect against the damage or injury • Personnel Protective Equipment (PPE) • Barriers and Safeguards
Hazards when Powered OFF • When the tool is OFF is it Safe? • Not necessarily • Stored Energy • Potential Energy • Sharp points and edges • How do you know if it is Safe? • Only if you know all the tools’ systems and hazards • Learn what components can store energy • Learn how energy can be released • Learn the hazards associated with each tool • LEARN HOW TO OPERATE EACH TOOL BEFORE YOU USE IT
Training • Safety training is necessary for new operators, new or altered safeguards, or new machines or operation • Provide instruction or hands-on training in the following: • Describe and identify the hazards associated with each machine • The safeguards themselves, how they provide protection, and the hazards for which they are intended • How to use the safeguards and why • How and under what circumstances safeguards can be removed, and by whom (Remove an repair by qualified technician when safeguards are damaged, return to svc.) • What to do and what action to take if a safety incident occurs
Typical Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) • Hand • Gloves • Face • Face Shield • Eye • Glasses, Goggles • Ear • Ear Plugs, Ear Muffs • Lung • Mask, Respirator • Head • Hard Hat
Not Just PPE • No Loose Clothing • Unnecessary risk around moving or rotating machinery • Tripping Hazard • Can catch on nearby equipment • Lift properly to avoid injury • Head Up, Straight Back, Bend at Hips • Load close to body and directly in front • Lift with Legs, shift feet to turn, elbows in
Before PPE Selection – Survey the Site • Conduct a walk-through to identify sources of hazards to workers and co-workers from the basic hazard categories: • Impact • Penetration • Compression (roll-over) • Chemical • Heat • Harmful dust • Light (optical) radiation
PPE Selection – Hazard Sources • Motion • Machinery or processes where movement of tools, machine elements or particles could exist, or collision with stationary objects • High Temperatures / Chemical Exposures • Harmful Dust • Light Radiation • Welding, brazing, cutting, furnaces, heat treating, high intensity lights, etc. • Falling objects or potential for dropping objects • Sharp objects • Rolling or pinching objects which could crush the feet • Layout of workplace and location of co-workers • Electrical hazards • Review injury/accident data to help identify problem areas
Anatomy of Robotic Accidents • Lower Incidence During: • Demonstrated Autonomous Mode • Operator Control with an Experienced Operator • Higher Incidence During: • Operator Orientation, Training, and Experimentation • Programming & Program Touchup • New Operations • Maintenance • Adjustment • Testing • Repair • Setup • That’s What You’ll Be Doing Most!
Sources of Hazards • Human Errors • New/One-time operations (e.g. crating/uncrating) • Prior to programming • Interfacing activated peripheral equipment • Connecting live devices or sensors to the microprocessor or a peripheral • The greatest problem, however, is overfamiliarity with the robot or tool so that an individual places himself in a hazardous position. • Control Errors • Faults within the control system of the robot • Errors in software • interference - Electromagnetic or Radio frequency • Unauthorized Access • Entry into a robot's safeguarded area is hazardous because the person involved may not be familiar with the safeguards in place or their activation status.
Sources of Hazards • Transportation • Rough/uneven floor • Wheels that are too small for surface • Visibility over and around the robot • Robot that doesn’t fit dolly • In a hurry to cue • Grade • Cueing/Staging • Unaware of blocking the way for another team • Field behind schedule • Roboteers at rest • Out-of-Pit Repairs • Improper tool or support • Inadequate time for attempted repair
Sources of Hazards • Mechanical Failures • Operating programs may not account for cumulative mechanical part failure, and faulty or unexpected operation may occur. • Environmental Sources • Electromagnetic or radio-frequency interference (transient signals) • Power Systems • Pneumatic or electrical power sources • Electrical shock and release of stored energy from accumulating devices • Improper Installation • The design and layout of equipment, and facilities, if inadequately done, can lead to inherent hazards. Transportation
Types of Accidents • Contact • Movement, component malfunction, or program changes • Crushing, Trapping, Piercing • Failure • Components • Drive System • End Effectors • Peripheral Equipment • Trips, Slips, Falls • Restricted Space
Risk of Injury or Damage • The WORKING ENVELOPE of the machine: • More than just the robot – Any machine or tool • Maximum, Restricted, Working • Exists when there is energy to be released • Changes DIMENSION when the robot MOVES • The risk exists to the edge the ENVELOPE
Energy Storage and Release • Mechanical Energy Storage • Compressed Spring • Gear • Stalled Motor • Chain Tension • Momentum • Electrical Energy Storage • Battery, Capacitor • Pneumatic Energy Storage • Charged Air Cylinders • Compressed Air in Lines • Potential EnergyStorage • Extended Appendages • Bound Joints • Lifted Weights
Eliminate the Hazard • Release stored energy before power-down • Return it to its “home” position • Power the equipment OFF Safety FIRST
Safeguard Requirements • Prevent Contact • The safeguard must prevent hands, arms, and any other part of a worker's body from making contact with moving parts. • Secure • Workers should not be able to easily remove or tamper with the safeguard • Protect from falling objects • The safeguard should ensure that no objects can fall into moving parts. • Create no new hazards • A safeguard defeats its own purpose if it creates a hazard of its own. • Create no interference • Any safeguard which impedes a worker from performing the job quickly and comfortably might soon be overridden or disregarded. • Allow safe maintenance if possible.
Safeguards • RISK ASSESSMENT. At each stage of development of the robot and robot system a risk assessment should be performed. • SAFEGUARDING DEVICES. Personnel should be safeguarded from hazards associated with the restricted envelope (space) through the use of one or more safeguarding devices: • Mechanical limiting devices • Nonmechanical limiting devices • Presence-sensing safeguarding devices • Fixed barriers (which prevent contact with moving parts) • Interlocked barrier guards • AWARENESS DEVICES • Chain or rope barriers • Supporting stanchions or flashing lights • Signs, whistles, and horns
Moving Part Safeguarding • Point of operation: • That point where work is performed on the material, such as cutting, shaping, boring, or forming of stock. • Power transmission apparatus: • All components of the mechanical system which transmit energy to the part of the machine performing the work. These components include flywheels, pulleys, belts, connecting rods, couplings, cams, spindles, chains, cranks, and gears. • Other moving parts: • All parts of the machine which move while the machine is working. These can include reciprocating, rotating, and transverse moving parts, as well as feed mechanisms and auxiliary parts of the machine.
Team Safety • Safety Captain • Independent monitor of operations during concept, manufacturing process, shipping / receiving, field trip, and competition • Uninvolved in the proceedings while observing • Answers only to Coach & Mentors • Identifies safety hazards and prevents safety incidents • Spotters • Used during every movement of a tool or equipment • Eliminate hazards for the transportation team • Ensures clearances, accessibility, coordination • Disciplinarian – Consequences of Safety Infractions • Verbal • Documentation • Cumulative documentation • Disciplinary action up to and including: • Being relieved of you job on the team • Exclusion from travel to the regional • Dismissal from the team
Team Safety – Operations Checklist • Personnel in working area without Safety Briefing • Visitors • Nonessential Personnel • Authorized and qualified personnel on break • Equipment Location • Equipment Configuration • Improper fixturing of parts • Misplaced Tools • Damaged Tools • Hazardous Situations • Eye, Ear, Face, Hand, Body, Foot, Trip,
Abuse • Abuse and harassment may be emotional, physical, or sexual. • FIRST now has eligibility procedures for volunteer selection, training and supervision for FIRST Robotics Competition (FRC) regional events and all components of the FIRST Championship similar to those being used by many other youth-serving organizations. • Staff and volunteers at FIRST events are easily distinguishable. • Participants are expected to be in pairs or larger groups at all times going to, coming from, and during FIRST events. • Volunteers and participants should avoid isolated situations where incidents or allegations are more likely to occur. • Report any suspicions of harassment or abuse immediately. • FIRST will follow up on all reports, and will take appropriate action.
Safety During Transportation • Transportation-related risks for drivers, vehicles, and passengers: • Drivers of vehicles should be properly licensed, insured, be adequately trained to drive the kind of vehicle used. • Drive prudently and not be under the influence of alcohol or drugs. • Vehicles should be in good condition, and have required safety equipment, insurance, and inspections, and not be overloaded. • Passengers should act safely, refrain from distracting the driver, and take proper safety precautions (i.e., use seat belts in vehicles so equipped).
Remember Safety FIRST FIRST asks everyone involved in FIRST’s programs to place the highest priority on safety, looking out not only for one’s own safety but also the safety of others. Do not hesitate to speak up or act in the interest of safety. FIRST particularly wants to highlight safety measures in the areas of transportation, equipment and work safety, and guarding against abuse. http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/robotics/solutions.html
Safety Captain’s Job • My job is to make sure every teammate goes home from the FIRST Robotics work in the same condition as when they came to it!
Team Safety – Discipline Consequences • All students wishing to be a part of FIRST ROBOTICS competition must avoid receiving 10 or more checks on the following check list • Students that collect 10 checks or more will not be able to go to the Regional and will lose all possible recognition for participation. • Checks 1 thru 9 can result in lost of participation at the Regional and or Championship. In some cases, careless action while on school grounds and field trip activities may invoke school administrative discipline. • First offense - Verbal warning with check box on check list circled • Two (2) or more circled check points will be considered a check for each. • Second offense - Check made in check box • Third offense – Additional checks, invoke appeal process, consequences • Students are either returned to team assignment, reassigned, placed on suspension, or dismissed from the team. • Academic Probation, failing a class, school suspension or expulsion are considered severe and may result in immediate expulsion from FIRST ROBOTICS • Court of Appeals: Teacher / Mentors. Students will have a right to explain their complaints or differences.
Team Safety – Discipline Checklist • Horseplay during construction, manufacturing, shipping, field trip, competition • Disregard for posted signs and set safety rules in place • Lack of “Gracious Professionalism” or respect among fellow students and mentors • Operating tools or equipment unsafely • Careless handling or a hazard to self or others • Abuse or playing with equipment or tools • Irresponsible to team duties or no participation in work activity • Disrespect of rules set forth by Team Captain, Safety Captain, Mentors, or Coaches • Theft of school, robot, or team member’s property • Absent, late, or unexcused early departure from Robotics program activity • Failing a class, academic probation, suspension or expulsion
Training Project • Have Students create their own version of Robotic Safety • Use the following slide to get students involved with making safety signage • Discuss what causes accidents between man and machines • With Coaches, Mentors and Team members. You can make your own Safety Sign