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The Gift of the Nile:

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  1. The Gift of the Nile: Egypt

  2. Egyptian Civilization: “The Gift of the Nile MainIdeas • The Nile was crucial to the development of Egyptian civilization.  • Egyptian history is divided into three major periods.  Key Terms • dynasty  • mummification  • hieroglyphics  • hieratic script • pharaoh  • bureaucracy  • vizier  Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 2-1

  3. Egyptian Civilization: “The Gift of the Nile People to Identify • Menes  • Tutankhamen  • Ramses II  • Cleopatra VII  • Hyksos  • Hatshepsut  • Akhenaton  Places to Locate • Nile River  • Upper Egypt  • Giza • Lower Egypt  Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 2-2

  4. Egyptian Civilization: “The Gift of the Nile Preview Questions • What was the “Black Land”?  • Why were the pyramids built and how were they used? Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 2-3

  5. Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again. Section 2-5

  6. The Importance of Religion • Religion gave the Egyptians a sense of security and timelessness.  • The Egyptians were also polytheistic.  • Two groups of gods–the land gods and sun gods–were especially important.  • The sun was worshipped as the source of life.  • The sun god was named Atum or Re.  • The Egyptian ruler was called Son of Re, the sun god in earthly form. (pages 46–47) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 2-11

  7. The Importance of Religion(cont.) • Two important river and land gods were Osiris and Isis. They were husband and wife.  • Isis brought Osiris back to life after his brother, Seth, had cut up his body into 14 pieces.  • Osiris had an important role as a symbol of rebirth, whether after physical death or through the rebirth of the land when flooded by the Nile.  • Isis’s bringing together the parts of Osiris’s body each spring symbolized the new life that the floods brought. (pages 46–47) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 2-12

  8. The Course of Egyptian History • Historians divide Egyptian history into three major periods of stability, peace, and cultural flourishing: the Old Kingdom, the Middle Kingdom, and the New Kingdom. Periods of upheaval fell between them.  (pages 47–51) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 2-14

  9. The Course of Egyptian History(cont.) • The pyramids were built during the Old Kingdom.  • They served as tombs for the pharaohs and their families.  • They contained food, weapons, artwork, and household goods for the person in the afterlife.  • Egyptians believed that a person’s spiritual body (ka) could survive the death of the physical body if the physical body were properly preserved through mummification. (pages 47–51) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 2-17

  10. The Course of Egyptian History(cont.) • The mummy of Ramses the Great has remained intact for 3,000 years.  • Symbols of Osiris decorate his coffin.  • The largest pyramid was for King Khufu, built around 2540 B.C. in Giza. It covers 13 acres.  • Historians are still amazed at the builders’ precision.  • Huge stones are fitted so closely that a hair cannot be pushed between them. (pages 47–51) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 2-20

  11. The Course of Egyptian History(cont.) • The Great Sphinx is also at Giza.  • It has the body of a lion and head of a man; some historians believe it is there to guard the sacred site.  (pages 47–51) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 2-21

  12. Writing and Education and AchievementsinArt andScience • Writing emerged in Egypt around 3000 B.C. Egyptians used a system called hieroglyphics (“priest-carvings”), which used pictures and abstract forms.  • Later, Egyptians used a simplified version called hieratic script. Hieratic script was written on papyrus.  • Hieratic script was used for record keeping, business transactions, and the general needs of daily life.  • Because of these tasks, the class of scribes was very important in Egypt. (pages 52–53) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 2-33

  13. The Caste System: India

  14. Early Civilization in India • Main Ideas • India’s earliest cities provided the foundation for the Aryans.  • The caste system was a set of rigid social categories in Indian society.  Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 1-1

  15. India’s First Civilization • Early civilization in India developed in the Indus River valley.  • A civilization flourished there from 3000 to 1500 B.C. • Archaeologists have found remains of over a thousand settlements in this area.  • Two sites have ruins of the major cities Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro.  • The advanced civilization that flourished for hundreds of years in these cities is called the Harappan or Indus civilization. (pages 72–73) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 1-11

  16. India’s First Civilization (cont.) • Each of these cities had around 35,000 people and each was planned carefully.  • The cities had a grid of streets and were divided into walled neighborhoods.  • Some houses were as high as three stories. Buildings were constructed of mud bricks.  • Public wells supplied water, and bathrooms used an advanced drainage system.  • A chute system took household trash to public garbage bins. (pages 72–73) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 1-12

  17. India’s First Civilization (cont.) • The careful structure of these cities showed that this civilization had a well-organized government.  • Harappan rulers based their power on a belief in divine assistance.  • As in all ancient civilizations, religion and political power were linked closely.  • Priests probably performed rituals to a fertility goddess to guarantee a good annual harvest. (pages 72–73) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 1-13

  18. India’s First Civilization (cont.) Bellringer • What elements of an advanced civilization appeared in Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro? • Carefully planned streets, public wells, advanced drainage and trash systems, and extensive trade of imports and exports were evidence of an advanced civilization. (pages 72–73) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the answer. Section 1-16

  19. India’s First Civilization (cont.) • The Harappan economy depended on agriculture. The chief crops were wheat, barley, and peas.  • The Indus valley civilization traded extensively with Mesopotamia.  • They traded copper, lumber, and various luxury goods for Sumerian textiles and food.  • Much of the trade was by ship through the Persian Gulf, which lies between present-day Saudi Arabia and Iran. (pages 72–73) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 1-15

  20. The Arrival of the Aryans (cont.) • As nomads, the Aryans had no written language.  • They developed their first written language, Sanskrit, around 1000 B.C. We have yet to fully translate the language; therefore, we do not know as much about this civilization.  (pages 74–75) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 1-20

  21. Society in Ancient India • The Aryan conquest had a lasting effect on India.  • The meeting of conquered and conqueror created a set of social institutions and class divisions that last to this day.  • The caste system was one of the most important Indian social creations.  • It set up a rigid hierarchy of classes that determines a person’s occupation, economic potential, and social status.  • In part it was based on skin color. (pages 75–76) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 1-22

  22. Society in Ancient India (cont.) • There were five major classes, or castes. • The top two castes were the Aryan ruling elites, the priests and warriors.  • The highest were members of the priestly class, or Brahmans. • The warriors were called Kshatriyas.  • The third caste was made up of commoners, who for the most part were merchants.  • Members of this caste were called the Vaisyas. (pages 75–76) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 1-23

  23. Society in Ancient India (cont.) • Below this were the Sudras, who made up most of the Indian population.  • They were the darker-skinned natives the Aryans had conquered.  • Most were peasants who did manual labor, and their rights were limited. (pages 75–76) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 1-24

  24. Society in Ancient India (cont.) • The Untouchables made up the lowest rung of Indian society.  • They performed jobs considered degrading by Indian society, like collecting trash and handling the dead.  • They made up about 5 percent of ancient India’s population. (pages 75–76) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 1-25

  25. Society in Ancient India (cont.) • The life of an Untouchable was difficult.  • They were not considered human, and their presence was considered harmful.  • They lived in separate areas.  • When they traveled, they had to tap sticks together so others would know they were coming and could avoid them. (pages 75–76) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 1-26

  26. Society in Ancient India (cont.) • They advanced an education system for their sons led by a Guru (teacher) and continued to make a dominant culture.  • Due to the physical diversity of the Indian subcontinent, many forms of economic activities take place; mostly farming (in spite of the monsoons), herding, and trading. • They also developed Hinduism and Buddhism (both of which will be covered later) (pages 75–76) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 1-26

  27. Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again. Section 1-5

  28. Ancestor Worship: China

  29. Early Chinese Civilizations • MainIdeas • Chinese dynasties followed a rise and fall pattern.  • Three schools of thought about the nature of humans and the universe emerged.  • Key Terms • aristocracy  • Confucianism  • Daoism  • Legalism • Mandate of Heaven  • Dao  • filial piety  Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 3-1

  30. Early Chinese Civilizations • Preview Questions • Why was family important in ancient China?  • What are the major ideas associated with Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism? Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 3-3

  31. Early Chinese Civilizations • Preview of Events Section 3-4

  32. The Shang Dynasty • Chinese history begins with the Xia dynasty over four thousand years ago.  • Not much is known about this dynasty.  • The Xia was replaced by the Shang dynasty (about 1750 to 1122 B.C.).  • An aristocracy–an upper class whose wealth is based on land and whose power is passed on from one generation to another–dominated this farming society. (pages 89–91) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 3-10

  33. The Shang Dynasty (cont.) • The king ruled over a system of territories run by aristocratic warlords and was expected to defend the empire.  • There was a strong central government.  • The king’s importance is shown by the ritual sacrifices performed at his death. Corpses of servants were placed in the king’s tomb. (pages 89–91) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the answer. Section 3-11

  34. The Shang Dynasty (cont.) • The Chinese believed that supernatural forces could help with worldly life.  • To get this help, priests read oracle bones.  • A king’s question to the gods would be etched on a bone.  • The bones were heated until they cracked.  • Priests would interpret the meaning of the cracks.  • These bones are a valuable source of information about the Shang period. (pages 89–91) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the answer. Section 3-12

  35. The Shang Dynasty (cont.) • The Chinese believed strongly in life after death.  • This belief is the basis for the Chinese veneration of ancestors, known in the West as “ancestor worship.”  • The Chinese believed that the spirits of family ancestors could bring good or bad fortune to the living family, so they treated the spirits well. (pages 89–91) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the answer. Section 3-13

  36. The Shang Dynasty (cont.) • The annual festival called Qingming (“Clear and Bright”) was for the ancestors.  • Families cleaned the family graves and brought food for their ancestors’ spirits.  • The Shang’s bronze objects are among the most admired creations of Chinese art. (pages 89–91) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the answer. Section 3-14

  37. The Zhou Dynasty • The leader of the Zhou territory revolted against the Shang king and established the Zhou dynasty, which lasted from 1045 to 256 B.C., making it China’s longest dynasty.  • The king was believed to connect Heaven and Earth. Among the king’s most important duties was performing rituals to strengthen the link between Heaven and Earth. (pages 91–94) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 3-16

  38. The Zhou Dynasty (cont.) • The Chinese had, and have, strong beliefs about the family.  • It was both the basic economic unit and a symbol of the social order.  • Most important to Chinese family life is the concept of filial piety. • Filial piety refers to the duty of family members to subordinate their needs to the male head of the family and the older generations.  • It is an important Confucian concept. (pages 91–94) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 3-24

  39. The Zhou Dynasty (cont.) • The Chinese began to develop a theory of government.  • The Zhou dynasty claimed it ruled by the Mandate of Heaven.  • This view stated that Heaven, an impersonal law of nature, kept order in the world through the Zhou king.  • This concept became a basic part of Chinese political theory. (pages 91–94) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 3-17

  40. The Zhou Dynasty (cont.) • Under the Mandate of Heaven, the king was expected to be virtuous and to rule with goodness and efficiency.  • The king was expected to rule according to the proper “Way,” called the Dao. • If he did (and he was not overthrown), the gods would be pleased. If the dynasty fell, it was because he was no longer ruling in the proper way. (pages 91–94) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 3-18

  41. The Zhou Dynasty (cont.) • Events like a bad harvest were signs that the gods were not pleased and grounds for overthrowing the king.  • The Mandate of Heaven, then, set forth a right of revolution.  • It also implied that the king himself was not divine.  • The Mandate of Heaven was closely tied to the dynastic cycles that governed Chinese history from its beginning to A.D. 1912. (pages 91–94) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 3-19

  42. The Chinese developed pictographic written language …and terrace farming methods...

  43. The Chinese Philosophies • From 500 to 200 B.C., three schools of thought about human nature and the universe developed in China–Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism.  • Legalism believes that man is evil by nature and has to be controlled through harsh laws and punishments. (pages 94–97) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 3-29

  44. Japan • Japan develops differently from China due to geography. • The most significant difference is the Samurai warriors and their code of Bushido (Way of the Warrior) and the Shoguns (general) who were the actual power of Japan. • Unlike most island nations, trade was slow to develop and the people relied primarily on farming, in spite of the fact that 20% of Japan is arable. (pages 94–97) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 3-29

  45. Cradle of Western Civilization: Mesopotamia

  46. History Cultural Diffusion That different cultures shared ideas and characteristics is particularly important to this region as ideas were shared (or taken as they were conquered), modified and improved upon. During this time period a number of achievements started. • A number of successive civilizations occupied the same general area in a series of rises and falls over the course of several millennium (thousands of years).

  47. Civilization in Mesopotamia Begins Main Ideas • Mesopotamia, one of the first civilizations, began between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.  • The Sumerians formed city-states and created forms of communication that affect our lives today.  Key Terms • city-state  • patriarchal  • polytheistic  • cuneiform • ziggurat  • theocracy  • empire  Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 1-1

  48. Civilization in Mesopotamia Begins Preview Questions • How did geography affect the civilizations in Mesopotamia?  Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 1-3

  49. Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again. Section 1-5