Shifting from TEACHINGtoLEARNINGapproaches Marion Muehlen, EPIET Scientific Coordinator, ECDC Public Health Training Section, Stockholm, Sweden
Acknowledgement • Based on material and lectures from • Angela Giusti • Public Health Researcher, MSc Adult Education • National Institute of Health, Rome – firstname.lastname@example.org • Sonsoles Guerra Liaño & Biagio Pedalino
Objectives • Recognize different thinking and learning styles • Apply the brain dominance tool to learning contexts • Describe the characteristics of the adult learner • Experience different styles in a working group • Design a training unit for a specific target group • Employ strategies that promote active participation and involvement of adult learners in training units
Who are we? Who are the participants?The Herrmann’s whole brain model Source: Whole Brain Model, by Ned Herrmann
What are the Four Brain Quadrants? Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument (HBDI) and Whole Brain Thinking Model)
Relationship Between Brain Dominance and Competencies BRAIN DOMINANCE INTEREST PREFERENCE MOTIVATION weak STRONG COMPETENCE low HIGH Source: Whole Brain Model, by Ned Herrmann
Are practical and problem-centered Provide overviews, summaries, examples Use stories to link theory to practice Discuss/plan for direct application of new information Use collaborative, authentic problem-solving activities Anticipate problems applying the new ideas to their setting (trainer => offer suggestions) Less theory, more practice
Promote their positive self-esteem Provide low-risk activities in small group settings Build individual success incrementally Become more effective and confident through guided practice and establishing routines Readiness to learn depends on motivation
Allow for choice and self-direction Ask what they know already about the topic Ask what they would like to know about the topic Compare desired behaviors (goals) & actual behaviors Allow for options so you can easily shift if needed The unknown Unknowns: use learners perception of needs vs. research on needs vs. organizational needs to guide your planning
Experience is a motorway for the learning process
Integrate existing knowledge with new ideas Capitalize on what is already know from prior experience Create activities that use their experience and knowledge Listen and collect data about participant needs before, during and after the event Adjust time and build in options for topics to fit their needs Suggest follow-up ideas and next steps for support and implementation after the session Provide for the possible need to unlearn old habits or confront inaccurate beliefs
Show respect for the learner Breaks, snacks, coffee, comfort Use everybody’s time effectively and efficiently Provide a quality, well organized, experience Avoid jargon and don't "talk down" to participants Validate and affirm their knowledge, contributions and successes Request feedback on your work, assumptions, or ideas Provide input opportunities Choice of words (different cultural backgrounds)
Challenges in Adult Learning Lack of confidence in learning capacity Fear of looking weak in the group Want to avoid making mistakes Reduced speed of learning (but more “in depth”) More resistant to change Highly conservative Difficulty accepting views of others Wide inter-individual differences Based on “The adult Learner”, by Malcom S. Knowles et al, 2005
Toothpick tree activity 6 Groups (= 3min presentation groups) Material provided: 1 pen 2 sheets of paper 9 toothpicks Instructions: It has to be a collaborative design SILENCE, but laughing is allowed Free role distribution within the group
Instructions • Using the toothpicks, try to make as many trees as you can without repetitions A tree is defined as having (at least) 1 trunk and (at least) 3 branches Toothpicks CANNOT be broken to produce more trees!
Instructions • Draw each new tree on the sheet of paper ONLY trees that have been created with the toothpicks can be drawn on the sheet of paper • You have 5 minutes!
Think in the group for 5´: Name a “reporter” and answer these questions: How many trees did you draw? What happend during the activity? What did you observe? Did you develop a group strategy? Any lesson learnt for the next group activity?
More questions: • How did you feel in the group? • What was your reaction to the task? • Which was your role? • How did you assign the roles? • How did you feel about the person who was slow at seeing the solutions? If you were that person, how did you feel? • Was there a climate that helped or hindered? How was the climate? • Other observations, comments, learning points?
Teaching and learning: • MATERIALS AND METHODS
Teaching and learning methods Modeling Role playing Microteaching Problem solving Reading information Problem-based learning Project work (ind. or group) Skill practice (ind. or group) Theatre of the oppressed Research (ind. or group) Self-case study Theatre forum Simulation More info about teaching methods www.go2itech.org/HTML/TT06/toolkit.html Coaching Cine forum Debriefing Case study Counselling Brainstorming Guided discussion Group discussion Field experience Guided practice Demonstration Metaplan Lecture
Five levels of training impact and evaluation • 1 Are the trainees satisfied? • 2 What have the trainees learned? • 3 What do trainees do differently in the workplace? • 4 What is the effect on the output of the trainee’s team or department? • How has the training contributed to achieving public health objectives?
The facilitator’s role The facilitator proposes a range of methods and activities to promote an effective learning process, that includes: • Creating a supportiveenvironment • Creating a mechanism for a continuing shared training/learning process (objectives, methods, activities, evaluation) • Meeting trainee’s individual learning needs • Making course content relevant and coherent with expressed needs • Using a variety of teaching methods and providing learning opportunities, consistent with objectives and group needs • Using bi-directional sensitive feedback to correct and reinforce • Making a continuous participated assessment of the learning process and acting consequently
The Training Planning in Public Health Performance Evaluation Monitoring Process and Outcome Evaluation Traning Realization Problem analysis Evaluation plan setting Supervision HEALTH GOALS definition Project cycle in public health Training cycle Learning strategies and methods definition Strategies choice Realization Learning objectives definition Expected results and activities definition Learning needs analysis Resources provision Participants and tasks description Performance goals definition Timetable