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Boundless Lecture Slides

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  1. Boundless Lecture Slides Available on the Boundless Teaching Platform Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  2. Using Boundless Presentations Boundless Teaching Platform Boundless empowers educators to engage their students with affordable, customizable textbooks and intuitive teaching tools. The free Boundless Teaching Platform gives educators the ability to customize textbooks in more than 20 subjects that align to hundreds of popular titles. Get started by using high quality Boundless books, or make switching to our platform easier by building from Boundless content pre-organized to match the assigned textbook. This platform gives educators the tools they need to assign readings and assessments, monitor student activity, and lead their classes with pre-made teaching resources. Get started now at: • The Appendix The appendix is for you to use to add depth and breadth to your lectures. You can simply drag and drop slides from the appendix into the main presentation to make for a richer lecture experience. http://boundless.com/teaching-platform • Free to edit, share, and copy Feel free to edit, share, and make as many copies of the Boundless presentations as you like. We encourage you to take these presentations and make them your own. If you have any questions or problems please email: educators@boundless.com Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  3. About Boundless • Boundless is an innovative technology company making education more affordable and accessible for students everywhere. The company creates the world’s best open educational content in 20+ subjects that align to more than 1,000 popular college textbooks. Boundless integrates learning technology into all its premium books to help students study more efficiently at a fraction of the cost of traditional textbooks. The company also empowers educators to engage their students more effectively through customizable books and intuitive teaching tools as part of the Boundless Teaching Platform. More than 2 million learners access Boundless free and premium content each month across the company’s wide distribution platforms, including its website, iOS apps, Kindle books, and iBooks. To get started learning or teaching with Boundless, visit boundless.com. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  4. Plant Reproductive Development and Structure Plant Reproduction Pollination and Fertilization Asexual Reproduction ] Plant Reproduction Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  5. Plant Reproduction > Plant Reproductive Development and Structure Plant Reproductive Development and Structure • Plant Reproductive Development and Structure • Sexual Reproduction in Gymnosperms • Sexual Reproduction in Angiosperms Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/biology/textbooks/boundless-biology-textbook/plant-reproduction-32/plant-reproductive-development-and-structure-189/

  6. Plant Reproduction > Pollination and Fertilization Pollination and Fertilization • Pollination and Fertilization • Pollination by Insects • Pollination by Bats, Birds, Wind, and Water • Double Fertilization in Plants • Development of the Seed • Development of Fruit and Fruit Types • Fruit and Seed Dispersal Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/biology/textbooks/boundless-biology-textbook/plant-reproduction-32/pollination-and-fertilization-190/

  7. Plant Reproduction > Asexual Reproduction Asexual Reproduction • Asexual Reproduction in Plants • Natural and Artificial Methods of Asexual Reproduction in Plants • Plant Life Spans Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/biology/textbooks/boundless-biology-textbook/plant-reproduction-32/asexual-reproduction-191/

  8. Appendix Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  9. Plant Reproduction Key terms • accessory fruita fruit not derived from the ovary but from another part of the flower • androeciumthe set of a flower's stamens (male reproductive organs) • annuala plant which naturally germinates, flowers, and dies in one year • apomixisprocess of reproduction in which plants produce seeds without fertilization • bienniala plant that requires two years to complete its life cycle • coleoptilea pointed sheath that protects the emerging shoot in monocotyledons such as oats and grasses • cross-pollinationfertilization by the transfer of pollen from an anther of one plant to a stigma of another • cuttingplacing part of a stem containing nodes or internodes in water or moist soil in order to produce new plants • dispersalthe movement of a few members of a species to a new geographical area, resulting in differentiation of the original group into new varieties or species • double fertilizationa complex fertilization mechanism that has evolved in flowering plants; involves the joining of a female gametophyte with two male gametes (sperm) • endocarpthe inner part of the fruit • exocarpthe outermost covering of the pericarp of fruits; the skin Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  10. Plant Reproduction • food deceptiona trickery method employed by some species of orchids in which only bright colors and perfume are offered to their pollinators with no food reward • graftingprocess of attaching part of a stem from one plant onto the root of another plant • gynoeciumthe set of a flower's pistils (female reproductive organs) • heterostylythe condition of having unequal male (anther) and female (stigma) reproductive organs • hypocotylin plants with seeds, the portion of the embryo or seedling between the root and cotyledons • layeringa method of plant propagation in which a bent stem is covered with soil in order to generate new roots • megasporophyllbears megasporangium, which produces megaspores that divide into the female gametophyte • mesocarpmiddle part of the fruit • micropropagationpractice of rapidly multiplying plant material to produce a large number of progeny plants using plant tissue culture methods • microsporophylla leaflike organ that bears microsporangium, which produces microspores that divide into the male gametophyte (pollen) • monocarpica plant that flowers and bears fruit only once before dying • nectar guidemarkings or patterns seen in flowers of some angiosperm species that guide pollinators to nectar or pollen Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  11. Plant Reproduction • perenniala plant that is active throughout the year or survives for more than two growing seasons • perianththe calyx (sepals) and the corolla (petals) • plumuleconsisting of the apical meristem and the first true leaves of the young plant • pollinationthe transfer of pollen from an anther to a stigma that is carried out by insects, birds, bats, and the wind • polycarpicbearing fruit repeatedly, or year after year • proembryoa cluster of cells in the ovule of a fertilized flowering plant that has not yet formed into an embryo • radiclethe rudimentary shoot of a plant that supports the cotyledons in the seed and from which the root is developed downward; the root of the embryo • seed dormancya seed with the ability to delay germination and propagation of the species until suitable conditions are found • self-pollinationpollination of a flower by its own pollen in a flower that has both stamens and a pistil • senescenceaging of a plant; accumulated damage to macromolecules, cells, tissues, and organs with the passage of time • simple fruitfruit that develops from a single carpel or fused carpels of a single ovary • stolona shoot that grows along the ground and produces roots at its nodes; a runner Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  12. Plant Reproduction • suspensorfound in plant zygotes in angiosperms; connects the endosperm to the embryo and provides a route for nutrition from the mother plant to the growing embryo • testathe seed coat • vegetative reproductiona form of asexual reproduction in plants Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  13. Plant Reproduction Pollination by insects Insects, such as bees, are important agents of pollination. Bees are probably the most important species of pollinators for commercial and garden plant species. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Pollination and Fertilization. October 17, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44723/latest/Figure_32_02_01.jpgView on Boundless.com

  14. Plant Reproduction Conifer life cycle This image shows the life cycle of a conifer. Pollen from male cones blows up into upper branches, where it fertilizes female cones. Examples are shown for female and male cones. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Reproductive Development and Structure. October 17, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44722/latest/Figure_32_01_08.pngView on Boundless.com

  15. Plant Reproduction Wind dispersal Wind is used as a form of dispersal by lightweight seeds, such as those found on dandelions. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Biology. November 21, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44723/latest/?collection=col11448/latestView on Boundless.com

  16. Plant Reproduction Runners: asexual reproduction A stolon, or runner, is a stem that runs along the ground. At the nodes, it forms adventitious roots and buds that grow into a new plant. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Asexual Reproduction. October 17, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44725/latest/Figure_32_03_02.jpgView on Boundless.com

  17. Plant Reproduction Pollination by deception in orchids Certain orchids use food deception or sexual deception to attract pollinators. Shown here is a bee orchid (Ophrys apifera). Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Pollination and Fertilization. October 17, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44723/latest/Figure_32_02_06.jpgView on Boundless.com

  18. Plant Reproduction Structures of the flower The four main parts of the flower are the calyx, corolla, androecium, and gynoecium. The androecium is the sum of all the male reproductive organs, and the gynoecium is the sum of the female reproductive organs. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Reproductive Development and Structure. October 17, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44722/latest/Figure_32_01_02.pngView on Boundless.com

  19. Plant Reproduction Plants and sexual reproduction Plants that reproduce sexually often achieve fertilization with the help of pollinators such as (a) bees, (b) birds, and (c) butterflies. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Introduction. October 17, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44720/latest/Figure_32_00_01abc.jpgView on Boundless.com

  20. Plant Reproduction Superior and inferior flowers The (a) lily is a superior flower, which has the ovary above the other flower parts. (b) Fuchsia is an inferior flower, which has the ovary beneath other flower parts. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Reproductive Development and Structure. October 17, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44722/latest/Figure_32_01_04ab.jpgView on Boundless.com

  21. Plant Reproduction Layering In layering, a part of the stem is buried so that it forms a new plant. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Asexual Reproduction. October 17, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44725/latest/Figure_32_03_04.jpgView on Boundless.com

  22. Plant Reproduction Plant life spans The bristlecone pine, shown here in the Ancient Bristlecone Pine Forest in the White Mountains of eastern California, has been known to live for 4,500 years. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Asexual Reproduction. October 17, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44725/latest/Figure_32_03_06.jpgView on Boundless.com

  23. Plant Reproduction Grafting Grafting is an artificial method of asexual reproduction used to produce plants combining favorable stem characteristics with favorable root characteristics. The stem of the plant to be grafted is known as the scion, and the root is called the stock. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Asexual Reproduction. October 17, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44725/latest/Figure_32_03_03.jpgView on Boundless.com

  24. Plant Reproduction Monocots and dicots The structures of dicot and monocot seeds are shown. Dicots (left) have two cotyledons. Monocots, such as corn (right), have one cotyledon, called the scutellum, which channels nutrition to the growing embryo. Both monocot and dicot embryos have a plumule that forms the leaves, a hypocotyl that forms the stem, and a radicle that forms the root. The embryonic axis comprises everything between the plumule and the radicle, not including the cotyledon(s). Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Pollination and Fertilization. October 17, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44723/latest/Figure_32_02_09.pngView on Boundless.com

  25. Plant Reproduction Pollination by birds Hummingbirds have adaptations that allow them to reach the nectar of certain tubular flowers, thereby, aiding them in the process of pollination. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Pollination and Fertilization. October 23, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44723/latest/Figure_32_02_03.jpgView on Boundless.com

  26. Plant Reproduction Plant senescence The autumn color of these Oregon Grape leaves is an example of programmed plant senescence. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."Oregongrapeleaves."Public domainhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Oregongrapeleaves.jpgView on Boundless.com

  27. Plant Reproduction Types of fruit There are four main types of fruits. Simple fruits, such as these nuts, are derived from a single ovary. Aggregate fruits, like raspberries, form from many carpels that fuse together. Multiple fruits, such as pineapple, form from a cluster of flowers called an inflorescence. Accessory fruits, like apples, are formed from a part of the plant other than the ovary. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Pollination and Fertilization. October 17, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44723/latest/Figure_32_02_11abcd.jpgView on Boundless.com

  28. Plant Reproduction Male and female gametophytes These series of micrographs shows male and female gymnosperm gametophytes. (a) This male cone, shown in cross section, has approximately 20 microsporophylls, each of which produces hundreds of male gametophytes (pollen grains). (b) Pollen grains are visible in this single microsporophyll. (c) This micrograph shows an individual pollen grain. (d) This cross section of a female cone shows portions of about 15 megasporophylls. (e) The ovule can be seen in this single megasporophyll. (f) Within this single ovule are the megaspore mother cell (MMC), micropyle, and a pollen grain. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Reproductive Development and Structure. October 17, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44722/latest/Figure_32_01_09.jpgView on Boundless.com

  29. Plant Reproduction Moths as pollinators A corn earworm (a moth) sips nectar from a night-blooming Gaura plant. Both the moth and plant benefit from each other as they have formed a symbiotic relationship; the plant is pollinated while the moth is able to obtain food. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Pollination and Fertilization. October 17, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44723/latest/Figure_32_02_02.jpgView on Boundless.com

  30. Plant Reproduction Wind pollination These male (a) and female (b) catkins from the goat willow tree (Salix caprea) have structures that are light and feathery to better disperse and catch the wind-blown pollen. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Pollination and Fertilization. October 17, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44723/latest/Figure_32_02_05.jpgView on Boundless.com

  31. Plant Reproduction Staminate and carpellate flowers The corn plant has both staminate (male) and carpellate (female) flowers. Staminate flowers, which are clustered in the tassel at the tip of the stem, produce pollen grains. Carpellate flower are clustered in the immature ears. Each strand of silk is a stigma. The corn kernels are seeds that develop on the ear after fertilization. Also shown is the lower stem and root. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Reproductive Development and Structure. October 17, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44722/latest/Figure_32_01_03.jpgView on Boundless.com

  32. Plant Reproduction Double fertilization In angiosperms, one sperm fertilizes the egg to form the 2n zygote, while the other sperm fuses with two polar nuclei to form the 3n endosperm. This is called a double fertilization. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Pollination and Fertilization. October 17, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44723/latest/Figure_32_02_07.jpgView on Boundless.com

  33. Plant Reproduction Embryo development Shown are the stages of embryo development in the ovule of a shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa). After fertilization, the zygote divides to form an upper terminal cell and a lower basal cell. (a) In the first stage of development, the terminal cell divides, forming a globular pro-embryo. The basal cell also divides, giving rise to the suspensor. (b) In the second stage, the developing embryo has a heart shape due to the presence of cotyledons. (c) In the third stage, the growing embryo is crowded and begins to bend. (d) Eventually, it completely fills the seed. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Pollination and Fertilization. October 17, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44723/latest/Figure_32_02_08abcd_a.jpgView on Boundless.com

  34. Plant Reproduction Microsporangium Shown is (a) a cross section of an anther at two developmental stages. The immature anther (top) contains four microsporangia, or pollen sacs. Each microsporangium contains hundreds of microspore mother cells that will each give rise to four pollen grains. The tapetum supports the development and maturation of the pollen grains. Upon maturation of the pollen (bottom), the pollen sac walls split open and the pollen grains (male gametophytes) are released. (b) In these scanning electron micrographs, pollen sacs are ready to burst, releasing their grains. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Reproductive Development and Structure. October 17, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44722/latest/Figure_32_01_05.jpgView on Boundless.com

  35. Plant Reproduction Pollen grain structure Pollen develops from the microspore mother cells. The mature pollen grain is composed of two cells: the pollen tube cell and the generative cell, which is inside the tube cell. The pollen grain has two coverings: an inner layer (intine) and an outer layer (exine). The inset scanning electron micrograph shows Arabidopsis lyrata pollen grains. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Reproductive Development and Structure. October 17, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44722/latest/Figure_32_01_06f.jpgView on Boundless.com

  36. Plant Reproduction Embryo sac As shown in this diagram of the embryo sac in angiosperms, the ovule is covered by integuments and has an opening called a micropyle. Inside the embryo sac are three antipodal cells, two synergids, a central cell, and the egg cell. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Reproductive Development and Structure. October 17, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44722/latest/Figure_32_01_07.pngView on Boundless.com

  37. Plant Reproduction Teosinte Teosinte (left) is the ancestor of modern corn (far-right). Although they are morphologically dissimilar, genetically they are not so different. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikimedia."Maize-teosinte."CC BYhttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Maize-teosinte.jpgView on Boundless.com

  38. Plant Reproduction Monocot seeds As this monocot grass seed germinates, the primary root, or radicle, emerges first, followed by the primary shoot, or coleoptile, and the adventitious roots. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Pollination and Fertilization. October 17, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44723/latest/Figure_32_02_10.jpgView on Boundless.com

  39. Plant Reproduction Roots Different types of stems allow for asexual reproduction. (a) The corm of a garlic plant looks similar to (b) a tulip bulb, but the corm is solid tissue, while the bulb consists of layers of modified leaves that surround an underground stem. Both corms and bulbs can self-propagate, giving rise to new plants. (c) Ginger forms masses of stems called rhizomes that can give rise to multiple plants. (d) Potato plants form fleshy stem tubers. Each eye in the stem tuber can give rise to a new plant. (e) Strawberry plants form stolons: stems that grow at the soil surface or just below ground and can give rise to new plants Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Biology. November 25, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44725/latest/?collection=col11448/latestView on Boundless.com

  40. Plant Reproduction Pollinators To maximize their avoidance of self-pollination, plants have evolved relationships with animals, such as bees, to ensure cross-pollination between members of the same species. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikimedia."Pollination Bee Dandelion."CC BY-SAhttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pollination_Bee_Dandelion.JPGView on Boundless.com

  41. Plant Reproduction Attribution • Wikipedia."vegetative reproduction."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/vegetative%20reproduction • Wikibooks."Botany/Plant reproduction."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Botany/Plant_reproduction • OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Biology. October 17, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44720/latest/?collection=col11448/latest • Wiktionary."gynoecium."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/gynoecium • Wiktionary."androecium."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/androecium • OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Biology. October 17, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44722/latest/?collection=col11448/latest • Boundless Learning."Boundless."CC BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com//biology/definition/perianth • OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Biology. October 23, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44722/latest/?collection=col11448/latest • OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Biology. October 17, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44722/latest/?collection=col11448/latest • Wiktionary."megasporophyll."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/megasporophyll • Wiktionary."microsporophyll."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/microsporophyll • Wikipedia."nectar guide."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/nectar%20guide • OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Biology. October 17, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44723/latest/?collection=col11448/latest • Boundless Learning."Boundless."CC BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com//biology/definition/food-deception • OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Biology. October 23, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44723/latest/?collection=col11448/latest • Wikipedia."suspensor."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/suspensor • Wikipedia."double fertilization."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/double%20fertilization Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  42. Plant Reproduction • OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Biology. October 17, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44723/latest/?collection=col11448/latest • Wiktionary."proembryo."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/proembryo • Wikipedia."plumule."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/plumule • Wiktionary."radicle."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/radicle • Wiktionary."testa."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/testa • Wiktionary."hypocotyl."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/hypocotyl • Wiktionary."coleoptile."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/coleoptile • OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Biology. October 17, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44723/latest/?collection=col11448/latest • Wikipedia."Seed."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seed%23Seed_production • Boundless Learning."Boundless."CC BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com//biology/definition/accessory-fruit • OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Biology. October 17, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44723/latest/?collection=col11448/latest • Boundless Learning."Boundless."CC BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com//biology/definition/simple-fruit • Boundless Learning."Boundless."CC BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com//biology/definition/mesocarp • Boundless Learning."Boundless."CC BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com//biology/definition/endocarp • Wiktionary."exocarp."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/exocarp • Boundless Learning."Boundless."CC BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com//biology/definition/seed-dormancy • Wiktionary."dispersal."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/dispersal • OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Biology. October 17, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44723/latest/?collection=col11448/latest • Wiktionary."stolon."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/stolon Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  43. Plant Reproduction • Wikipedia."Plant reproduction."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plant_reproduction • Wiktionary."apomixis."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/apomixis • Wikibooks."Botany/Plant reproduction."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Botany/Plant_reproduction • OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Biology. November 25, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44725/latest/?collection=col11448/latest • Wikipedia."micropropagation."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/micropropagation • Wiktionary."cutting."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/cutting • Wikipedia."Plant reproduction."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plant_reproduction • Boundless Learning."Boundless."CC BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com//biology/definition/grafting • Wiktionary."layering."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/layering • OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Biology. October 23, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44725/latest/?collection=col11448/latest • OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Biology. October 17, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44725/latest/?collection=col11448/latest • Wiktionary."annual."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/annual • Wiktionary."senescence."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/senescence • Wiktionary."biennial."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/biennial • Wiktionary."polycarpic."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/polycarpic • Wiktionary."monocarpic."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/monocarpic • Wiktionary."perennial."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/perennial • OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Biology. October 17, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44725/latest/?collection=col11448/latest • Wiktionary."cross-pollination."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/cross-pollination Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  44. Plant Reproduction • Wiktionary."heterostyly."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/heterostyly • Wiktionary."self-pollination."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/self-pollination • OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Biology. November 21, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44723/latest/?collection=col11448/latest • OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Biology. November 21, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44723/latest/?collection=col11448/latest • OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Biology. October 23, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44723/latest/?collection=col11448/latest • Wiktionary."pollination."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/pollination Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com