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Child Development - typical and atypical development

Child Development - typical and atypical development

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Child Development - typical and atypical development

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  1. Child Development - typical and atypical development Dr Karl Wall 2009

  2. Human development Death Adulthood Older adulthood • Dimensions • of change: • Physical • Sensory • Motor • Social • Emotional • Cognitive • Reproductive • Experiential Middle adulthood Early adulthood Childhood Teen years Puberty Pre-puberty Early years Birth Pregnancy Conception

  3. 0 – 5 months: ‘typical’ development From upper part of Figure 10 p64 of Herbert, M. (2003) Typical and Atypical Development. Oxford: BPS Blackwell.

  4. 5 months – 1 year: ‘typical’ development From lower part of Figure 10 p64 of Herbert, M. (2003) Typical and Atypical Development. Oxford: BPS Blackwell.

  5. 12 mths – 18 mths: ‘typical’ development. From upper part of Figure 18 p154 of Herbert, M. (2003) Typical and Atypical Development. Oxford: BPS Blackwell.

  6. 18 mths – 60 mths: ‘typical’ development From lower part of Figure 18 p154 of Herbert, M. (2003) Typical and Atypical Development. Oxford: BPS Blackwell.

  7. Variation and range in milestones From Table 4 ‘Ages when motor skills are achieved’ p95 of Herbert, M. (2003) Typical and Atypical Development. Oxford: BPS Blackwell.

  8. Variation and range in milestones 1 Ave. 3 weeks Ave. 2 months Ave. 4.5 months Holds head steady when held upright (1 week - 4 months) Lying on tummy lifts self by arms 3 weeks - 5 months Rolls from side to back 3 wks - 5 mon. Rolls from back to side 2-7 months Based on ‘Table 4 ‘Ages when motor skills are achieved’ p95 of Herbert, M. (2003) Typical and Atypical Development. Oxford: BPS Blackwell.

  9. Variation and range in milestones 2 Ave. 3 months Ave. 7 months Grasps a cube 2 mths - 7mths Sits alone with coordination 5 mths - 9 mths Based on ‘Table 4 ‘Ages when motor skills are achieved’ p95 of Herbert, M. (2003) Typical and Atypical Development. Oxford: BPS Blackwell.

  10. Variation and range in milestones 3 Ave. 7 mths Ave. 8 mths Ave. 9 mths Crawls 5 mths - 11mths Pulls to a standing position 5 mths - 12mths Uses a pincer grasp 7-10 months Based on ‘Table 4 ‘Ages when motor skills are achieved’ p95 of Herbert, M. (2003) Typical and Atypical Development. Oxford: BPS Blackwell.

  11. Variation and range in milestones 4 Ave. 11 months Ave. 13 months Stands independently 9 months - 16 months Walks alone 8 mths - 18mths Based on ‘Table 4 ‘Ages when motor skills are achieved’ p95 of Herbert, M. (2003) Typical and Atypical Development. Oxford: BPS Blackwell.

  12. Sleep Figure from Thieke (2001) at http://www.aafp.org/afp/20010115/277.html

  13. Child development theories 1 • Historically: • Childhood: the early part of being an adult - not a special period • Children as little adults – no special care or attention required; no differentiation between ‘child’ development and ‘adult’ development

  14. Child development theories 2 • Arnold Gesell (1880 -1961): universal patterns of physical maturation, genetically driven and determined > ‘milestones of development’ • Sigmund Freud (1857 -1959): early childhood experience informs subsequent development; focus on impact of psychosexual influences > type of stage theory

  15. Child development theories 3 • Erik Erikson (1902-1994): extends Freud’s perspectives: • Brings in environmental factors and more stages issue of overcoming stage related ‘crisis’ events. • B.F. Skinner (1904 -1990): Child behaviour shaped by how experience is reinforced: • Role of reward and punishment > experience conditions behaviour

  16. Child development theories 4 • Alfred Bandura (1925 -present): Learning informed by imitation and social observation • Role of motivation and inner psychological processes • modelling, role models, ‘social’ learning: ‘Social Learning Theory’

  17. Child development theories 5 • Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934): Learning interactions as basis of development: • Role of social context, language, communication and the mediating influence of others inform a ‘social constructivist’ development • Historical, cultural and social factors inform cognition and development - ‘language’ is the principal societal tool

  18. Child development theories 6 • Jean Piaget (1896 -1980): development seen as: • Four, genetically driven, universal and sequential stages of symbol based ‘cognitive’ development. • These reflect children's individual construction of their own thinking systems, supported by interaction with adults

  19. Child development theories 7 • John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth (Integrated Attachment Theory): • focus on how parent – child relationships are established • the role of early relational experiences and their impact on how later relationships are formed and maintained • ‘Life Course’ perspectives: re-integration of child and adult development as aspects of a single developmental continuum

  20. Reference sources 1 Meggitt, C. (2006) Child Development. London: Heinemann. Miller, L., Rustin, M., Rustin, M. and Shuttleworth, J. (2002).Closely observed infants. London: Duckworth.

  21. Reference sources 2 Sylva, K. and Lunt, I. (1982) Child development-a first course. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. Herbert, M. (2003) Typical and Atypical Development. Oxford: BPS Blackwell. Lewis. V. (2003) Development and Disability. 2nd Edition. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. Sheridan, M. D. (2005) From Birth to Five years [Updated and revised by Frost, M. and Sharma, A.). London: Routledge. Sheridan, M. D. (2006) Play in Early Childhood – From birth to six years. [Updated and revised by Harding, J. and Meldon-Smith, L.). London: Routledge.

  22. Reference sources 3 Butterworth, G. & Harris, M. (1994). Principles of Developmental Psychology.Hove: Psychology Press. Chap. 9: Cognitive development in early childhood; Chap. 10: Cognitive development in middle childhood. Child, D. (1997). Psychology and the Teacher. London: Cassell. Chap. 7: Concept formation and cognitive development. Donaldson, M. (1978) Children’s Minds. London: Fontana. (a critique of aspects of Piaget’s stage theory)

  23. Reference sources 4 Eysenck. M.W. (2000). Psychology: A Student’s Handbook. Hove, E. Sussex: Psychology Press. Chap. 16: Cognitive development. Siegler, R.S. & Wagner Alibali, M. (2005). Children’s Thinking. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Chap. 2: Piaget’s theory of development. Sutherland, P. (1992). Cognitive Development Today: Piaget and his Critics. London: Paul Chapman. Tharp, R. & Gallimore, R. (1991). A theory of assisted performance, in P. Light, S. Sheldon, M. Woodhead (eds). Learning to Think. London: Routledge.

  24. Reference sources 5 Miller, P. H. (2002) Theories of Developmental Psychology (4th edn). New York: Worth. Kugelmass, J. W. (2007) Constructivist views of learning: implications for inclusive education, in Lani Florian (ed). The SAGE Handbook of Special Education. London: SAGE De Valenzuela. J. S. (2007) Sociocultural views of learning in Lani Florian (ed). The SAGE Handbook of Special Education. London: SAGE